Attachment Theory: The Place Of Attachment And Temperament In Child-child Interaction
Children spend most of their time outside of safe care environments at home in the early stages of their lives with their peers which word is used for same age group of people and are socially attracted to their other peers, wanting to build intimacy with them. By the time they reach the age of three, communication with peers increases, becomes stronger, more complex, and often involves collaboration, communication and shared values. They are selective for certain peers from this age, and thus friendships begin to appear in many children at preschool age. In the process of making friends, young children learn about regulating emotions, setting interests, balancing their own desires with their friends. In this way, they will be able to provide the basis of peer relations in their future lives in harmony.
There are important factors that affect whether children will be with a person in these selective processes. During this period, they learn and distinguish important concepts such as acquaintance and acquaintance. That way, they can easily choose the friends that suit them. Although not much research has been done on this subject, research has shown that children’s play interactions with familiar individuals and strangers tend to be more frequent and complex than those with strangers. At the same time, familiar-unfamiliar group comparisons showed that interactions between newly met children moved in a positive direction over time. Taking advantage of Byrne’s (1971) theory of interpersonal attraction, the degree of predictability was explored by the similarity of children between visits. According to Byrne’s (1971) theory, individuals are attracted to similar individuals, and this process is often referred to as homophily. Similarity promotes attractiveness in the first stage of a relationship and has a large role in the interaction between peers. In a nutshell, children are attractive and can form friendships with peers they resemble themselves. It is also shown in studies to prospective specialization that homophily is a function of choice. However, research has shown that friendship selection among people with low levels of aggressiveness (e.g., similarity on academic achievement, bad habits, and level of aggressiveness). But research on school age and adolescent ages showed that friend selection had a greater impact on similarity. The analysis found evidence on gender-type activities for peer selection and socialization effects.
According to research, both attachment and temperament have shown success in children’s peer relationships. The child being cared for from a responsive, stable, reliable caregiver will have positive expectations for social interaction, will be responsive in their relationships with other people. Ainsworth’s attachment theory is an important value. In contrast, children who have not received adequate care, have not received enough love, and have grown insecure may show retreat and hostility during interactions with others. Two children with high confidence enjoy interacting, while children with low confidence may be shy and have difficulty interacting with each other. Such situations greatly affect the child’s desire to trust and connect with others in the future and in the present. In one study, a 33-month-old baby was assessed for attachment and temperament. They stood on their mother’s lap for 3 minutes, were separated from their mother for 3 minutes, and then reunited with their mother again, and these numbers varied. There were no “strangers” during the break-up episodes, and mothers received no instructions on what to tell them as they left their babies ‘ side. Infants were classified as secure, avoidant, ambivalent and disoriented, and their confidence – insecurity levels were assessed from numbers 1-9. (For example, 1 is the most insecure baby, 9 is the baby that feels most secure, happy and enjoys exploring the environment). As a result of this assessment, Ainsworth found that children had an innate temperament and that one of the things that shaped it was the mother’s behavior towards her children. He also emphasized that the attachment types shaped by the relationships that babies have with their parents will often be repeated in the close relationships that they have established when they become adults.
In the research, children’s individual behavior and bilateral interaction were evaluated at intervals of 30 seconds. They gave the boys free play and scored. Children’s preferred games were judged on 7 points. (e.g. 1=Alone, 2=bystander, 3=by imitating) and the behavior of children to each other were examined. Scores were obtained based on 25 minutes of observation per visit. As a result, findings were obtained that children who grew up receiving similar care (with a sense of trust and insecurity, stable care or lack of care) played in the same style, for example by themselves or by imitating. An examination was conducted on anger predisposition in the average similarity interaction tendency, and it was found that when anger predisposition is high, positive interaction decreases over time if similarity is high, but increases over time when similarity is low. However, when anger predisposition is low, positive interaction between individuals has increased over time if similarity is high. At the same time, children with low anger levels showed a positive increase in human relationships, while children with high anger levels showed a decrease in positive relationships. The score on social fear also showed that positive interaction was absent. It was predicted that the similarity of peers on temperamental pleasure was positive interaction between their relationships.
Child-mother attachment security has an important role in both peer relationships and child-friend interaction. Children who are in regular care are more likely to have quality friendships in their lives, to have positive expectations, to have the right attitude and behavior. The role of the family in the bonding process is important. A strongly cared-for child can both trust people in friendship relationships and be a self-confident individual.