Cognitive Development Case Study: Ana’s Probable Stage Of Psychosocial And Cognitive Development

  • Words 1031
  • Pages 2
Download PDF

Identify Ana’s probable stage of psychosocial and cognitive development.

  • a) What factors as described in the case enquiry might be impacting on Ana’s development?
  • b) What influences are these developmental factors having on Ana’s behaviour as described in the case enquiry?

(You will need to provide a definition of both developmental stages you have identified Ana to be in, and justify your response to demonstrate your understanding of each stage)

Ana is seen to be in the Pre-Operational stage with her cognitive development while her psychosocial development suggests she is in the Initiative vs Guilt stage.

Click to get a unique essay

Our writers can write you a new plagiarism-free essay on any topic

Pre-Operational stage (2-7yrs): Pre-Operational stage is the second stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. In this stage children begin to interact with symbolic play and develop a greater understanding of symbols and their meaning behind them. Due to the surge in physical activities during this age children become progressively more skilled at using symbols and is able to learn some words. By age four children become increasing inquisitive of their surroundings. The child’s mind at this stage remains to be egocentric as they can’t perceive the world though other’s eye.

Initiative vs Guilt (3-6): Initiative vs Guilt is the third stage in Erik Erikson theory of psychosocial development. In this stage children ought to begin initiative by planning, accomplishing tasks and overcoming challenges. During this stage parents/guardians need to encourage exploration and help children find their way in life. Parents/guardians who are dismissive can cause their children to feel embarrassed of who they are and develop increasing dependant on themselves or others. Parents might feel frustrated with the way children become more possessive over decision of who they hand out with and varies activities they are involved in.

A) There are multitude of factors impacting on Ana mental development such as

  • Chris accident at work
  • Failed parenting techniques

B) Development is a process of change which begins from the day we are born till death. There are two types of developments, normal influences and non-normative influences (not normal). Normal influences are biological changes (puberty) and social transitory events. While non normative influences include death in family at a young age in child life and or serious illness. Theses non-normative influence can have a great impact on a child development. Ana behavioural problems are also not helped by Kat and Chris parenting techniques and the sudden accident of Chris at his workplace. The attachment theory state that a well-built physical and emotion bond to one parent/guardian is critical to our mental development. If there is a strong bond the child feels strongly connected and start to exploure new things. If there is a weak bond, then the child is hesitance to explore and becomes increasing attached. During the time Chris was away in hospital Ana and Kat bond strengthened but when Chris came home Kat had to look after Chris. Ana has problem coping with the lack of attention. Ana think her mother acts unpredictably and is worried about her relationship and becomes increasingly clingy. For Ana to be noticed by her mother she has to raise her voice, throw things around get into fights and throw tantrums. When she is noticed her mother, who tries to calm her down with a predictable response Ana becomes ambivalent. This is seen numerous times in the case enquire such as in session 1 with Ana and family where she picks up various items and drop them while her mother response is yelling at Ana who burst into tears when her mother comforts her she immediately stops crying and at the child care centre getting into fights and all sort of mischievous activities. According to the attachment theory Ana is anxious/ambivalent toward her mother. Contrary to her mother Ana father acts very strictly to Ana even at the littlest of things. This is seen in the Kat notes on Wednesday when Ana tell Tata(Chris) that she doesn’t like sandwiches and Chris gets angry with Ana for simply not liking sandwiches and there is also some evidence in the case study video(interview) of Chris being strict to Ana over little things. Ana is anxious avoidant toward her father.

Identify which elements of Ana’s behaviour are problematic.

a) For whom are they problematic?

b) In what ways are they problematic for that person?

The main element for Ana which is problematic behaviour are her need for attention from her mother and her resolve to using fighting, screaming and refusing to follow simple instruction all seen in the case scenario and the interview are the main element of Ana problematic behaviour.

A) These problematic behaviours of Ana are challenging to both Chris(father) and Kat(mother).

B) These behaviours of Ana are more difficult to her mother as it is her attention that Ana is looking for. These become even more problematic for Kat after Chris discharge from the hospital as she had to look after Chris and his debleating condition of memory loss and being unable to speak properly while also looking after Ana and also working long hours as seen in the intake worker role description of 10 hrs a day and working 5 and a half days. The relationship between Kat and Chris is slowly disintegrating as a result of Chris memory condition, possible amputation of Chris leg and the worsening behaviour of Ana need for attention of her mother. These condition are worsened by Ana behaviour of need for attention by any means necessary.


  1. Factors influencing emotional health in children and teenagers • Learning Links. (2016, February 25). Learning Links.
  2. Education Psychology Interactive: Cognitive Development. (2019). Edpsycinteractive.Org.
  3. Erickson’s 8 stages of Psychosocial Development I Education, Society, & the K-12 Learner. (2008). Lumenlearning.Com.
  4. Understanding Initiative vs. Guilt. (2019). This Is How Children Develop a Sense of Initiative. Verywell Mind.
  5. Cherry, K. (2006, February 13). The Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development. Verwell Mind; Verywellmind.
  6. Sprouts. (2018). Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development. In YouTube.
  7. Sprouts. (2017). 8 Stages of Development by Erik Erikson. In YouTube.
  8. Anastasia. (2019, July 23). Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development I Cleverism. Cleverism; decoadmin.
  9. Sprouts. (2018). The Attachment Theory- How Your Childhood Affects Your Relationship. In YouTube.
  10. Cognitive and Psychosocial Development Case Study. Www.Papermasters.Com. Retrieved March 26, 2020,
  11. Factors influencing emotional health in children and teenagers. Learning Links. (2016, February 25). Learning Links.


We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you board with our cookie policy.