Critical Thinking And Problem Solving
It is the most important Requirements to have a successful life in every fields.
Cause life have a lot of difficulties and if you don’t able to deal with different situations will negatively affect all your life.
This skill is considered a basic strategy is to stimulate analysis, thinking, linking, hypotheses, prediction and using scientific research methods to prove their validity. The minds are raised about the existence of a specific problem that needs to be resolved and then asked to develop a solution. The method develops students to deal with difficulties in a self-reliant manner, and reduces their dependency on others, and produces a generation capable of thinking, correcting and evaluating, We are in dire need of the skills of thinking, under the rule of old educational systems that are no longer suited to the information and technological revolution in our world. This is what stands between us and developed countries that have made great strides in the field of modern education methods and produced innovative creative generations.
Ennis (1962) distinguishes between critical thinking and problem solving by focusing on the starting and ending points of each. Critical thinking begins with a conclusion or information. The central question is, ‘What is the value or validity of the thing?’ While problem solving begins with a question: How to solve it?
Critical thinking is not a strategy as it is for problem solving or make decision, because it consists not of processes and methods.
The Properties of Critical Thinking
- Do not jump directly to results
- Discussion of opinions within an environment where the opinion and opinion of the other is accepted and based on dialogue.
- Objectivity and distance from bias and intolerance.
- Observation, examination and scrutiny.
- Review of many of the views of the human mind on the issue studied.
- Identify strengths and weaknesses of information
- Based on a solid foundation of information and knowledge already existing in the person, as well as in-depth research on the issue studied by scientific research tools.
‘Life is a tragedy for those who live with their feelings, but it is like comedy for thinkers’.
This quote to Jean de la Prober is somewhat radical, and according to the assumptions of cognitive psychology, our views reflect our feelings.
Most people believe that our feelings are independent of our ideas and precedes them. The truth is that they are the product of our ideas. This costs a great hardship for man because it makes him responsible for all his behaviors and actions, but at the same time liberates him and gives him the ability to choose his ideas and views. When we can choose and direct our ideas, we will realize and can control our living conditions, improve decision and making processes.
Man becomes a critical and mental thinker capable of dealing with problems when he relies on reason rather than passion, can evaluate a wide range of ideas and views, is open to all alternative interpretations, and willing to accept any new results. Critical thinking is also willing to re-evaluate its information, able to avoid hasty judgments, deviate from all personal prejudices, and be ready to consider all reasonable possibilities. This does not mean in any way that we underestimate the importance of the feelings we feel but is just a simple way to balance them with our cognitive abilities.
Learning to think critically or solve the problem takes a long time and needs perseverance and practice. But first, one must know the steps of critical thinking and how to apply them.
- Identifying the problem is the first step in the way of critical thinking; sometimes one reaches a certain stage where it concludes that there is no problem, but it is just a misunderstanding. But in the event of a problem it must be precisely identified then, and consider all the positive and negative aspects involved
- Solve the problem and hope it from different angles. Once you identify the problem and analyze it through a different set of views, we will know whether it is solvable or not, and whether we can address it alone or need help from others. Sometimes we arrive at an immediate decision on the problem once it has been contemplated from many angles, and we may sometimes discover that we have a biased view, or a narrow horizon of view.
- Brainstorming and finding possible solutions.
In this step, one contemplates several possible ideas for solving the problem, then sets it down to choose the best one later. Of course, the more options you have, the more likely you are to achieve the desired results.
- Choose the solution most appropriate to our situation and circumstances. In certain situations, the circumstances under which we are experiencing may require a solution. It is therefore necessary to spend some time choosing the right solution, as there is no magic solution suitable for all possible circumstances.
- Acting is the fifth and final step on the path of critical thinking. At this stage, man seeks to implement the solution he has envisaged, even if it involves acceptance of his present state and moving forward in his life. So instead of looking at the problems and challenges that face us as obstacles we cannot overcome, we can always consider them as opportunities to refine our critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Our confidence in ourselves and our abilities increases with every problem we can overcome. Critical thinking not only helps us deal with the challenges ahead more skillfully, but also expands our thinking and gives us a different perspective to reflect on things.
- Critical thinking requires judgment by the individual who practices it.
- Critical thinking requires skill in the use of rules of logic and inference of things.
- Critical thinking involves a set of thinking skills that can be learned, trained and refined.
- Keep a memo to record creative ideas even if they seem far from the most logical solutions; keeping them can the individual to refer to them.
- Practice logical puzzles, and some games that develop logical thinking, and stimulate mental activity.