Defining The Principles Of Scientific Management

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The modern world has been marked by scientific management that is characterized by effective planning methods in order to attain certain objectives efficiently, division of labour which has served to increase specializations and innovations in work places, and a formalized interaction between the employees and their managers in their work places. Scientific management is a ‘management theory that rationalizes and standardizes production techniques, with the objective of improving efficiency and productivity’ (Sheldrake 1996). This theory was developed by Frederick Taylor and published in The Principles of Scientific Management. Initially, Frederick Taylor was an industrial engineer and was interested in practical outcomes. He observed workers at work and made accurate measurement of what they did in a time-and-motion study. (Ellis 2000). By conducting this study, Taylor discovered that much resource was wasted and a one-best way in performing the task should be found in a scientific analysis. After years of experiments at the Bethlehem Steel Company, Taylor proposed principles to determine optimal production methods.

In present day’s industrial processes, Taylor’s principles also come to play an important role. Taylor had studied the appropriate scientific designs for the tasks that the workers were performing so as to ensure they never were over worked nor were they underworked to unproductive levels. In addition, Taylor proposed that the workers should be selected scientifically according to a person’s skills so as to perform those tasks that the workers are in a position biologically to perform and handle well. The workers who best adopted to their positions and worked with high efficiency were rewarded with high wages in order to motivate them to repeat the same actions (Gass, 2005, p.21). Scientific management as presented by Taylor offered a chance for scientific training and education of all the workers with an intention of increasing their on-hand skills and basic understanding of their working environment. He conducted research to ensure maximum potential of the workers were utilized in performing their tasks. In modern times, this has continued taking place in various institutions. It has become increasing necessary for continued education due to the changing patterns and trends in the production industries (Gass, 2005, p.34). There is improvement in technology like the use of computers in performing tasks that were initially performed manually. Some of the machines that were once used in the processes of production and other tasks in the organizations have become redundant thus necessitating the use of a different and more complex machine. Secondly, in today’s institutions the human resource department has established a complex reward system that compensates the workers for their improved output in production. The various reward system used today are like fully paid holidays for employees, pay rises for good performing workers, scholarships to pursue high education, paid leaves among a variety of others. This has ensured increased competition between departments in an organization to raise their production levels to enjoy the enticing rewards. Psychologically, human behaviour can be reinforced through positive reinforcements and vice versa. The human resource managers are thus able to utilize this to positively reinforce the behaviour of ensuring increase in production in their organizations through the rewards. The application of these ideas has led to improved production within the workplaces as the workers are motivated to perform their duties to perfection. This has led to production of quality products into the market that reaches the thresholds of customer satisfaction.

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Taylor’s scientific management formed a foundation for operations research which is present today in various organizations. Both operations research and scientific management aims at increasing efficiency in the workers operations through the application of scientific means and systematic analysis to come up with a valid conclusion. Similar to this, the organization ‘Amazon’, launched in 1995, commenced its business in the UK with its “Fulfilment Centre” in 1998 at the Marston Gate, Bedford and has continued to expand its business in the UK thereafter. Induction into working in Amazon revolves around watching a range of promotional videos invite workers to have fun while working hard to make history. The workers functioning has been streamlined into enhanced efficiency through the principles of Taylor. Scientific management brought a revolution to management systems which have them evolved with time to accommodate new ideas and other changing variables in the workplaces. Workplaces have become areas of specializations where only those with specific skills and experiences can perform a certain task. Given such facts, division of labour is a common feature in today’s society and this has served to improve on innovative ideas and effective production (Wren, 2005, p.293). 


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