Effectiveness Of Media Utilization In Environmental Education At Secondary Level
Literally environment means where we lives and works. It is the surrounding that affects the life and activities of the organisms. Every organism is encircled by a specific medium to which it remains fully adopted and to which it constantly interfere its existence. This surrounding is called environment. Environment is nothing but the natural situation around living beings. It is total configuration of all external conditions and influences that affect life and development of organisms.
Environmental education is the need of the hour. Today our world is on the brink of destruction and if we don’t ACT NOW, we would be committing global suicide. Environmental education will make us aware about the environmental problems that are looming over our heads and will equip us with knowledge to overcome these problems .
Students, who are the future of tomorrow, have a critical role to play in making this world a better place lives in. They can act if they understand why environmental problems arise and how they should be tackled. Environmental education will sensitize them towards their environment and develop in them necessary skills and attitudes to work together and individually for better man-nature relationship.
In our country, the environment has been accorded a very high place in the scheme of things. Our poets, philosophers and saints have always emphasized that human beings can find happiness only by living in harmony with nature. But with the leaps that science has taken in the modern times and coupled with man’s greed for power, prosperity and pretige, man has caused untold damage to the environment. He has used development as a means to exploit nature to its maximum, not caring a bit for the damage it has done and is doing to humanity. The damage that has been done to the ecosystem and biological diversity is impossible to assess and to reverse.
Education without communication is simply impossible in turn will only work with an appropriate medium. In the case of environmental education at educational establishments classes at school, college, and universities level serve as this medium. As far as environmental education outside educational establishments is concerned mass media which enables people to communicate successfully. so media intervention plays a crucial role in education and making people environmental conscious. Almost all of the major business houses, political groups and social organizations promote message of environmental education through media intervention whether it is print, electronic or educational documentaries regarding environmental education.
Need Of The Study:
Environment and society both are interrelated and interdependent. Environment and environmental resources are the basis of different social groups, social organizations and social structures such as institutional, agricultural, political, religious etc. Natural environment helped in the evolution and development of different cultures and civilizations from pre-historic period to present day. But now a day’s deterioration takes place in environment and people of our society are directly or indirectly responsible for this. So for spreading awareness regarding environment and to save it environmental education is very essential. The environmental crisis is the foremost and most persistently challenging problem. Which is ready to devour the glory of the human existence? It is ready to wipe out human civilizations from this Earth. Dominantly operative environmental crisis today are always active in informing man to think seriously and choose a way between creative and progressive existence.
Efforts are being made to educate and to solve problems. Environmentalists have taken up environmental protection aspects in a serious way. It has taken a very strong position after the United Nations Conference on Human Environment at Stockholm in 1972; this was a major event for those concerned with the quality of the world’s environment. The National Policy of Education 1986, The Plan of Action 1992states that there totality is a paramount need to create consciousness of the environment. It must permeate all stages and all sections of society beginning with the child .It also suggested integrating environmental consciousness with all other subjects.
The Parliament Bill of 1995 and National curriculum of Framework 2005 all these give emphasis on environmental education. Article 51 of the constitution merely reiterates our obligations towards protecting nature. One of our duties is to protect the environment with compassion towards all forms of life. The individual’s duty per se remains hollow without the means to discharge it. According to Dhayani (1993) there has been a tremendous increase in the number of institutions and organizations on the environmental issues at the grassroots level as well as on regional and international base. It was reported that while in 1972 there were 2500 NGOs dealing with environment, the number rose to 15000 in 1981. Likewise in 1972 only 10 Governments had State departments dealing with environment; it rose to more than 100 departments on environmental protection.
Many researchers have taken interest to study different aspect of Sekar (1981) Study reported a limited role of Indian press in creating mass concern with environmental issues among university students. However when a comparative analysis of the effect of various mass – media was made in various villages of Jodhpur district and Jodhpur city. Press was found to be a much more effective media. Utility as new features proved much attractive and effective to the masses. Isabell (1973) Studies on structural organizations and conceptual framework of environmental education. In all these studies the topic that have been found to useful in developing environmental knowledge and awareness of different types of pollution, solid wastes. Population, wildlife, land use, energy crisis, ecology, adaptation and balance of nature.
- To study the effectiveness of media programs in creating awareness about the environment and environment related issues among the teachers at secondary level.
- To find out the media utilization in the field of environmental education.
- To evaluate the role of modern mass media in this process.
- How much media programs are effective in creating awareness about the environment and environment related issues among the teachers at secondary level?
- Is there any media utilization in the field of environmental education?
- What is the role of modern mass media in this process?
The present study is delimited to the following conditions.
- This study is limited to Ranchi district.
- This study is limited to mass media (television, radio, newspaper).
Sample Of The Study:
In this study researcher has selected purposefully 10 schools as a sample of the study. In all there were 40 teachers from 10 schools and 10 media persons from different electronic media (Doordarshan Kendra, Aakashwani ) and from print media (press-Krabhat khabar).
Tools of the study: The tools used by the researcher were-
- Questionnaire for teachers consisting of 15 questions.
- Interview schedule for media persons consisting of 10 questions.
Each item of questionnaire and interview schedule is directly or indirectly related to environment.
Analysis And Interpretation
To study the effectiveness of media programs in creating awareness about the environment and environment related issues among the teachers at secondary level.
Researcher collected data from 40 teachers of 10 schools regarding impact of media in creating awareness of environment and environment related issues. She found that media program plays an important role in creating awareness regarding this. Researcher also found that all of the teachers are aware about environment and its related issues and they are using media in classroom teaching and in other co-curricular activities like eco-club through which environment based activities are conducted either is print media ( newspaper) or electronic media ( television and radio ). Researcher mainly divided her data for this research question in three sections-
And found out their percentage impact on environmental education with the help of questionnaire which is shown in the table-
Name of the Media
% Impact on Environmental Education (EE)
Figure- Pie chart is showing % impact of media on environmental education
*PIOEE- Percentage Impact On Environmental Education
Second Objective: To find out the media utilization in the field of environmental education.
During analysis regarding this objectives it is found that media is infused in environmental education and in its related curricular and co-curricular activities with more or less knowledge of pedagogy. Even in the Eco clubs of schools some programs for environmental education are organized by taking help of various Medias. The utilization of media in the field of environmental education not only enhances the traditional methods of teaching, but it is also effective during utilization of media in the progressive methods of environmental education. Following are the some steps which shows how media is utilized in environmental education –
- The school broadcasts or telecasts are designed according to the need of the syllabus.
- Teachers are actively involved in various dimensions of broadcasts or telecasts meant for students.
- Radio programs or television programs are intended to give supplementary information on the various topics of the environmental education.
- Teachers are occasionally met, discuss and plan the type of assistance required in producing effective broadcast or telecast program.
- Suitable listening and visualizing facilities are provided to the students in the school.
- There are interaction among the students, subject teachers and the teachers who telecast, irrespective of the fact whether teachers who telecast are practicing teachers or not.
- There are proper seating arrangements so that all the students have a proper view of the lesson.
Above points are followed in proper and balanced way in the schools for the effective teaching by utilizing media in environmental education.
Third Objective: To evaluate the role of modern mass media in this process.
On the basis of collected data researcher found that by means of various programmes based on environment like quiz , expert talk etc. and by some other activities media plays a crucial role in the field of environmental education. Progrmmes are as follows.
Programmes telecasted by doordarshan Kendra-
- Environment based programmes
Programmes broadcasted by Aakashwani Ranchi-
- Science and environment and health
Prabhat khabar conducted “ Antipolythene Abhiyaan” in school, colleges and other place with the help of non-government organization and as a result of this in medical shops, temples and in most of the shops polythene is banned and in place of that carry bags are used. A rally is also organized by this press theme of which is “save water” in this rally chief minister, deputy chief minister etc. also took part. This shows that they are aware about the environment. Time to time this press publishes various articles on climate change, pollution control and other environment based themes. To save water, forest, land and environment this press launched a campaign recently. Das Nandita in 2001 found in her study named “A Study on Social and Environmental impact of TV and Radio programs” that media plays a dominant role in creating environmental awareness. In the same way in this study researcher found that media plays specially print media an important role in creating environmental awareness through environmental education.
Major findings of the study-
· All of the teachers are using media in classroom teaching and in other co-curricular activities. According to the collected data researcher found that there is great impact of media over environmental education and percentage impact of different media on environmental education are as follows-
- Television- 20%
- Newspaper- 70%
- Media is utilized in the area of environmental education but the extent of media utilization is different, if proper guidelines are followed by the teachers and balance between different media is maintained by the teachers the only media is more effective in the field of environmental education.
- Different media like Doordarshan Kendra, Akashwani , Ranchi spending some quality time and press ( Prabhat Khabar ) also published time to time some editorial material related to environment and its related issues.
- Media plays a very crucial role in environmental education by means of various activities and programs conducted by different media.
- The findings of present study would be used to identify the environmental knowledge and environmental awareness of secondary school teachers.
- It will help the teachers to develop a sense of responsibility for quality improvement of environmental education.
- Media administrators can organize some environmental program to boost up environmental education.
- It can help in selecting suitable methods of teaching and techniques to improve environmental awareness.
- It can help in teacher training.
Suggestions for further study-
After having some experience in the field of study, following suggestions can be made for further research in the field.
- The present study was contained to 10 schools of Ranchi containing 40 teachers and 10 media persons from different media. It can be extended by increasing the size of sample and covering several districts of Jharkhand.
- The present study was limited to effectiveness of media utilization in environmental education at secondary level .It can be extended to impact of other media also in environmental education at secondary level.
- The present study was confined to secondary level only so it can be extended to other levels also.
- The present study may be taken in other subjects of all classes of all types of school.
From the above study researcher came to this conclusion that there is great impact of media in environmental education at secondary level. In this present time all of the teachers are taking help from the media either that is print media or electronic media and utilization of media in the field of environmental education enhances the traditional teaching methods which ultimately leads to effective teaching learning and it also helps in better understanding of the students. Teaching environmental education with the help of media is more intuitive than old ways, teachers can simulate situations in real life. In many circumstances teachers do not have to be there, students will learn by themselves in the class .More importantly, teachers will have more approaches to stimulating students’ passion of learning. So if the proper guidelines are followed by the teachers during infusion of media in environmental education then it becomes more qualitative one and fruitful.
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