Evolution: The Theory Of Charles Darwin, The Big Bang Theory, The Creationist View Of Evolution
Evolution is the multi-generational change in species characteristics and is based on the natural selection process. We need to look at the DNA sequences in their genomes to understand how different species have evolved. Our history of evolution is inscribed in our genome, plus due to all the genetic changes that affected our ancestors, the human genome looks the way it does. The theory of evolution of Charles Darwin states that evolution occurs through natural selection. Individuals in a species show physical characteristics through several variations. These variations are due to gene differences. Less likely to survive and reproduce individuals who are poorly adapted to their environment. Therefore, the transmission of their genes to the next generation are of less odds. Darwin considered evolution as a “modified descent” a process in which species change over many generations and give rise to new species.
He suggested that life’s evolutionary history form a branching tree with many levels that can trace all species back to an ancient common ancestor. The forelimbs of whales, humans, birds, and dogs look quite different on the outside to give a classic example. That’s because in different environments they are adapted to function. However, if you look at the forelimbs ‘ bone structure, you will find that the pattern of bones across species are very similar. It is unlikely that such similar structures in each species would have evolved independently, and more likely that a common ancestor of whales, humans, dogs, and birds already had the basic layout of bones. Only in embryos can some homologous structures be seen. For example, during early development, all vertebrate embryos including humans have gill slits and a tail.
These species ‘ developmental patterns later differ which is why your embryonic tail is now your tailbone, and your gill slits have turned into your jaw and inner ear. Homologous embryonic structures reflect that in their last common ancestor, the developmental programs of vertebrates are variations on a similar plan. But Darwin actually had no knowledge of genetics, Darwin observed the pattern of evolution, but he didn’t really know about the mechanism. That came later, with the discovery of how genes encode different biological or behavioral characteristics, and how genes are transmitted from parents to children. The incorporation of genetics and the theory of Darwin is known as ‘modern synthesis of evolution.’ The physical and behavioral changes at the level of DNA and genes that make natural selection possible.
Such changes are known as mutations. Mutations can be caused by random DNA replication or repair errors, or by damage to chemistry or radiation. Mutations are usually either harmful or neutral, but a mutation may be beneficial to the organism in rare cases. If so, in the next generation it will become more prevalent and spread across the population. But the only mechanism by which organisms evolve is not natural selection, For example when organisms migrate genes can be transferred from one population to another. And the frequency of certain genes, which is called genetic drift. Evolution, as the core biological mechanism suffers from some serious disadvantages. Organisms tend to suffer overwhelmingly, rather than benefit from mutation.
The Big Bang was not a space explosion, as may be suggested by the name of the theory. Rather, researchers said, it was the appearance of space everywhere in the universe. The universe was born as a very hot, very dense, single point in space, according to the Big Bang theory. Cosmologists are uncertain about what happened before, but with sophisticated space missions, Scientists worked to paint a clearer picture of the early universe and its formation on ground – based telescopes and complicated calculations. At the early stages of the universe it underwent an incredible spurt of growth. The universe grew exponentially and doubled in size at least 90 times during this burst of expansion, known as inflation. The universe continued to grow after inflation, but at a slower rate. The universe cooled as space expanded and matter formed.
The Creationist view of the evolution of the universe is somewhat different from the scientific point of view. Some say the Earth and the universe are relatively young, maybe just between 6,000 and 10,000 years old. These individuals often believe that ‘catastrophism,’ including a worldwide flood, can explain the present physical form of Earth, and that all living things including human beings have been miraculously created, essentially in the forms we find them now. While the other advocates of creation science are willing to accept that for millions of years Earth, planets, and stars may have existed. But they argue that the different types of organisms, and especially human beings, could only come about with supernatural intervention because they show ‘smart design.’
However, in Islam it’s interpreted in a different way. In six days, Allah created the heavens and the earth and all in between. This indicates that what the Jews, upon whom Allah’s curses are, say is false, saying He was tired in six days when He created the heavens and the earth, so He rested on the Sabbath. High above what they say, be Allah. Allah sent angels to Earth to gather seven handfuls of soil, all colors, and Allah made the first man, Adam, to breathe life and power into him with soil. The Qur’an says ‘The heavens and the earth were united as one unit before We clove them asunder’ (21:30). After this great explosion, Allah ‘turned to the sky, and it was (as) smoke. He said to it and to the earth:’ Come together, willingly or unwillingly.’ They said:’ In willing obedience we come (together)” (41:11). Thus the elements and what the planets and stars were to become began to cool, come together and shape in accordance with the natural laws that Allah established in the universe.
The Qur’an also stated ‘in six days Allah has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them’ (7:54). While this may seem similar to the Bible-related account on the surface, some significant distinctions exist. The verses that use the Arabic word ‘youm’ (day) to mention ‘six days.’ This word appears in the Qur’an several other times, each denoting a different time measurement. In one case, a day’s measure is equated to 50,000 years (70:4), while another verse states that ‘a day in your Lord’s sight is like 1,000 years of your estimation’ (22:47). Thus, within the Qur’an, the word ‘يوم’ is understood to be a long period of time-an era or eon.
The evolution of planet earth started off just like all the other planets, dust in the universe lumped together to form particles, thus becoming gravel, gravel became small balls, then large balls, then small planets and further dust allowed for those to become the moon’s size. Their numbers decreased as the planets grew larger. As a result, the number of meteor collisions decreased. Less items available for accretion meant building a large planet took a long time.
Creationists trust that an overall flood can clarify the present type of Earth and the conveyance of fossils. The conviction that the silt of Earth were kept in a brief timeframe with their fossils does not compare either to the realized sedimentation forms or to the evaluated volume of water expected to store residue on the highest point of probably the most noteworthy mountains on Earth. Creationists reject such logical certainties to some degree since they don’t acknowledge proof drawn from regular procedures that they consider to be inconsistent with the Bible. Be that as it may, science can’t test powerful potential outcomes.
For Islam, Muslim thinkers believe there is only one lord and he has the ability to create anything, including humans out of nothing. Muslims also recite ayats that state all living things came out of water. Allah staes in the Quran ‘Every soul shall bear its own burdens’ and ‘Nobody will carry anybody’s burden’ in the Quran (6:164). The reason for this ayah is Allah wants every believer to know that he created everyone equally and nobody else would have the same burdens as anyone else.
Many different beliefs came to the common descent of all living things but the main ones included Retroviruses, the Presence of Atavisms, Vestigial Structures, Pentadactyl Limbs, and Fossil Evidence. Retroviruses are residual DNA sequences found as a result of ancient viral infections in the genomes of virtually all living organisms. Due to the incorporation of the retroviral sequences into the host organism’s DNA, such sequences are inherited in the offspring. Atavisms are the appearance of a lost trait in an ancestral species that is not observed in newer ancestors they also show the phenotypic or vestigial characteristics that are often retained throughout evolution.
Vestigial structures are structures homologous to those found in ancestral species but have become underdeveloped, non-functional or degenerated in organisms that have recently evolved. The presence of pentadactyl limbs is an example of a homologous trait exhibited by all tetrapods and, despite some modifications, is highly conserved throughout evolution. Fossilization occurs when a declining animal’s bones become porous and the surrounding earth’s mineral salts infiltrate the bones into stone, it’s also the most convincing type of evidence we have.
An evolutionary process guided or at least permitted by God or a supreme being, a creationist view or something in between. So basically they believe that the earth isn’t billions of years old and the whole view on evolution. So technically they don’t believe in the common descent of organisms cause they don’t believe in evolution.
Islam does have a belief in common descent and I also want to bring up that Islam has made significant contributions, and some scholars have even made a crucial step towards realizing that one species can evolve into another, and that what are now distinct species share a common ancestor. But this is still a long way from acknowledging that such change is universal, or that even highly dissimilar species share a common ancestor, or that these facts are important.
We can continue with our main understanding, the extent to which early Islamic scholars anticipated the ideas behind the modern science of evolution. We need to content ourselves with two different types of distortion here. There is, or has been until recently, a deplorable tendency in Western mainstream discussions about the history of ideas to downplay the enormous contribution of the Islamic World and see it merely as a path through which ancient learning re-entered late medieval Europe. http://muslimheritage.com/article/islamic-foreshadowing-evolution
‘O people! Fear your Lord, who created you from a single soul and from it created its mate.’
“Allah has created every animal out of water . Of them is a category which walks upon its belly, (another which) walks upon two legs, and a third which walks upon four . Allah creates what He wills. Allah is Able to do everything He wants.”
Acceptance of evolution among Western scientists, on the other hand, is essentially universal. Evolutionary science drives genetics, which is the centerpiece of many of the latest developments in medicine—including the ability to tailor treatments to individuals. Muslims do believe in evolution and It is important for Muslims to know that there are Muslim scientists who understand not only evolution, but also its implications for their own personal religious beliefs.
Allah alone is Ace of Presence. Only he causes all that will be and not to be. Causes are without impact in themselves, but instead both circumstances and logical results are made by Him. The causes and the impacts everything being equal, including those through which plant and creature species are individuated, are His work alone. To credit viability to anything besides His activity, in the case of trusting that causes (an) achieve impacts all by themselves; or (b) realize impacts all by themselves through a limit Allah has put in them, is to attribute partners to Allah (evade). Such convictions appear to be involved in the strict comprehension of ‘regular choice’ and ‘irregular change,’ and other developmental ideas, except if we comprehend these procedures as metaphorical causes, while understanding that Allah alone is the specialist. This is separated from the thought of whether they are valid or not.
It nullifies reality of Adam’s extraordinary creation that Allah has uncovered in the Qur’an. Man is of unique birthplace, bore witness to by disclosure, yet in addition by the perfect mystery inside him, the limit with regards to ma’rifa or information of the Heavenly that only he of all things has. By his inherent nature, man remains before an entryway opening onto endlessness that no other animal known to man can hope for. Man is something different.
I can’t help suspecting that this view, in regard to advancement yet additionally in regard to the idea of science as a contemporary religion, speaks to a kind of annihilation of learning by an absolutism of unadulterated approach. As I referenced at the start, the classifications of understanding that underlie every perception proclamation in the hypothesis of development emerge from human cognizance, and accordingly can’t be recognized by the hypothesis from other transient survival gadgets: its explanative technique, from first to last, is essentially just another survival component that has advanced in the set of all animals. By its own measure, it isn’t important that it be valid, however just fundamental that it be amazing in the battle for survival. Apparently, some other hypothesis – regardless of whether deceptive – that would be advised to suggestions for survival could dislodge development as a method of clarification. Or on the other hand maybe the hypothesis itself is a figment.