Exploring Breast Cancer And Genetic Disorders

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The Basics of all Cancers

Cancer is a disease caused by an division of cells that cannot be controlled in your body. Cancer can occur anywhere in the body but its most likely to spread to the lymph nodes, bones, the brain, liver or lungs. Tumors are a swelling without inflammation, caused by abnormal growth of tissue. Benign Tumors are not harmful. Malignant tumors are very infectious. There are 4 stages of cancer. Stage 0 means the cancer is just getting in place and hasn’t spread anywhere but is easy to stop from there. Stage 1 is when the cancer is small or the tumor has not grown deeply into nearby tissues. It also has not spread to the lymph or other parts of the body yet which is why its called early stage cancer. Stage 2 is when the tumors have grown deeper into the nearby tissue. They also may have spread to the lymph nodes but no other parts. Stage 3 usually means the cancer is larger and it has spread into the lymph nodes. Stage 4 means it has spread to larger parts of the body like the bones of the body it is also called advanced or metastatic. Cancer in most cases if caught early is treatable but if not caught early enough it can be fatal.

Cancer Type Specifics

For my cancer project I picked Breast cancer because, my great grandma died from it and it interests me. She faught it for 10 years but unfortunately, she died from it. This cancer occurs in the breast and is commonly found in females. The initial symptoms are lumps, swelling, skin irritation, nipple retraction, nipple discharge, and breast or nipple pain. If the cancer is discovered early you just need a small surgery. If the cancer is not discovered early you would need surgery, chemo therapy, hormonal therapy, biological therapy and radiation. It is a smart idea to do a check 1 to 2 times a month to make sure you don’t have breast cancer. In the US 439 1 out of 8 women get cancer in a 80 year lifespan.

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To get breast cancer the P53 gene mutates and a tumor starts to form. Once the tumor forms it can grow if not caught early enough. The mutation occurs in Somatic cells. Somatic cells are any cells of a living organism that aren’t reproductive. Breast cancer is hereditary but its only hereditary if you get the BRCA1 and the BRCA2 genes. If you inherit the genes from your mom it’s a 50%-85% chance you will get breast cancer. But it is very unlikely you get the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes so it is rare to get it for hereditary reasons. Cancer is mainly obtained because or environmental reasons. You get it from certain chemicals, diet, social factors, and different types of radiation.


Breast cancer can’t be completely avoided you will still have a chance of getting it but here are some ways to make that chance a little less. Limit alcohol consumption and don’t smoke, alcohol and smoking are linked to different cancers as well but it’s best not to smoke or drink to help prevent that risk. Some more ways are controlling your weight and being physically active it keeps your heart healthy and helps you prevent cancer. The final ways are to keep away from radiation and limit your dose and duration of hormone therapy. Doing all these things won’t completely get rid of chances of cancer but it will help a little bit. Cancer can never be completely controlled and will always have a chance of occuring.

The Basics of Genetic Disorders

Genetic disorders are problems caused by one or more abnormalities formed in the gene. This basically says that a genetic disorder is a problem in the gene. Genes are a unit of heredity which is transferred from parent to child. This is saying that genes are what is passed from a parent to their own children. Traits are qualities that distinguish certain things about a person. Traits are basically something that is unique about a person. A mutation is a random change of structure of a gene. Central Dogma is a theory in genetics that genetic information is coded in self-replicating DNA which undergo a transfer to RNA which helps severely in protein synthesis. Transcription is the process of DNA being copied into a molecule of RNA. Translation is the process of translating the RNA molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.

Genetic Disorder Specifics

I chose to research color blindness because it is an interesting genetic disorder that I wanted to learn more about. This genetic disorder affects the nervous system and the eyes. The signs and symptoms of color blindness include trouble seeing colors and brightness and inability to see different shades of the same color. There is no real good treatment for color blindness yet but there are some glasses that claim to help people with the disorder. Every 10% of males have it and less than 1% of females have it in the US.


Complete color blindness is caused by the loss of the retinal cine photoreceptors function. This results in disruption of the retinal pathway and causes the eye to get colors confused if severe. The mutation that occurs happens in the OPN11W gene and the OPN1MW gene. Color blindness is a usually a hereditary condition. Red/green and blue color blindness is usually passed down from your parents. The gene is carried on the X chromosome and this is the reason why more men are affected than women. Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked trait and blue-yellow color blindness is a autosomal trait. Red-green color blindness is recessive and blue-yellow color blindness is dominant.

Work Cited

  1. “Stages of Cancer” Cancer.Net, January 8th 2019, https://www.cancer.net/navigating-cancer-care/diagnosing-cancer/stages-cancer
  2. “Stages of Cancer in the Human Body” Cancer Research UK, July 23 2019, https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/stages-of-cancer
  3. “Breast Cancer: Breast Cancer Information & Overview” https://www.cancer.org/cancer/breast-cancer.html
  4. “Cancer Statistics” National Cancer Institute, https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/understanding/statistics
  5. “Breast Cancer How to Reduce Your Risk.” Mayo Clinic, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education, December 1st 2018, https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/womens-health/in-depth/breast-cancer-prevention/art-20044676
  6. Turbert, David. “What Are the Symptoms and Causes of Color Blindness?” American Academy of Ophthalmology, September 9th 2019, https://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/color-blindness-symptoms
  7. “Your Eye Concerns and Problems” Bausch Lomb, https://www.bausch.com/your-eye-concerns/diseases-and-disorders/color-blindness
  8. “Color Blindness Explained.” All About Your Vision Vision, https://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/colordeficiency.htm
  9. “Color Blindness Conditions.” National Eye Institute, U.S. Department of Health, https://nei.nih.gov/learn-about-eye-health/eye-conditions-and-diseases/color-blindness
  10. “Color Blindness.” Color Blindness an Overview | ScienceDirect Topics, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/color-blindness


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