Global Distribution of Plastic Pollution
Plastic is known world-wide and has had a major impact in many lives through the simple things like plastic bags which make it easier to carry groceries and for structures and housing systems which are safe and strong. However, plastic is one of the many things effect this world today, through plastic pollution which has cause an environmental crisis.
1.1-Purpose of Report
The purpose of this report is to see the effect plastic pollution has on the world. It will compare and contrast the effects plastic pollution has on Australia and Indonesia, and find strategies that can help prevent any future damages caused by plastic pollution.
1.2- The Global Distribution of Plastic Pollution
Although Plastic has been revolutionary it has had a negative impact on the world and its environment by causing plastic pollution. Different countries each have different methods to solve the problem of mismanaging plastic waste but not all counties can perform do to financial problem. This problem has a large effect on 3rd and even 2nd world countries. As shown in TR 1, mismanaged plastic waste in 2025 is predicted to be all over the world. The main area that will be effected the most if there is no change is Asia. Although other places will not be impacted as much there is still the problem of mismanaged plastic waste which will eventually led to plastic pollution.TR 1: A graph with data about the share of global mismanaged plastic waste in 2050. ->https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution
In 1950, the world produced 2 million tonnes of plastic per year. Information from Our World in Data shows that in result of the Global Financial Crisis there was a minor setback in the global production of plastic during 2009 and 2010. Ever since then the annul production has increased drastically, reaching 381 million tonnes in 2015 as shown in TR 2. As shown in the graph that there was an extreme change of the Global plastic production that have skyrocketed over the past 65 years.
TR 2: A graph about Global plastic productions from 1950-2015 ->https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution
The World’s environment has been effected by many problems but plastic pollution has the biggest impact on it. The plastic has become a big threat to all wildlife and the planet. In TR 3, a diagram shows 2010’s global plastic waste was 275million tonnes and there was 10,000’s to 100,000’s tones of plastic were found surface waters. There are 2 billion people who live within 50 km of a coastline would most likely have a larger effect on plastic pollution. The picture also shows that there are 31.9 Million tonnes of mismanaged plastic per. year coastally. This would have impacted the wildlife and possible even human heavily. All the plastic pollution has effected many wildlife creatures but it has mostly killed birds, fish, marine mammals and sea turtles. Plastic pollution has disturbed the environment in many ways including destroying the habitat of the animals and has even affected animals matting grounds and rituals. Including the problems with matting for animals and plastic pollution can also make it difficult on humans and their source of food and water. TR 3: A image about data of the pathway by which plastic enters the world’s ocean ->https://ourworldindata.org/plastic-pollution
This shows that the world has a lack of money to prevent and reduce plastic pollution, solutions to fix the crisis and knowledge about the plastic pollution crisis. The problem of over production of plastic, destroying the environment and mismanaged waste will continue increase unless the countries of the world find a solution.
2.0- Research Methodology
The data gathered and used in this report are information from reliable websites like organisation, governments, country news sources and articles. A few examples used in the report are the Our World Data organisation, Indonesia Investments, World Wide Funds for Nature(WWF) Australia, The Greenpeace organisation Australia and many more.
3.0- Plastic Pollution in Indonesia and Australia
3.1- The Impact plastic pollution has in Australia compared to Indonesia
Plastic Pollution has had an impact in many places around the world. Two Countries both are affected by this problem which is Australia and Indonesia but they are still significantly different because of how they reduce the problem.
In Australia, plastic pollution has mostly affected its beaches, waterways and marine wildlife. Every year in Australia around 130kg of plastic is used by each person. The Australian Government has taken a notice to this fairly early in the 1980s and had decided to introduce recycling in Sydney. At the very beginning, this concept was unknown to the rest of Australia but later on it became more popular. Although recycling has been embraced more by Australia it is still not enough to prevent plastic pollution. This has become very costly and the New South Wales Government has found themselves having to spend $132 million each year on trying to prevent plastic pollution. TR 4: A table of information about the countries with the most mismanaged plastic waste in 2010 in. ->https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/countries-putting-the-most-plastic-waste-into-the-oceans.html
However, Australia have not been effected as much compared to Indonesia. According to data in figure 4 from World Atlas in 2010 Indonesia was the second country with the most mismanaged plastic waste in the world. As shown in TR 4 displays that in 2010 Indonesia had a mass of 3.22 metric tonnes of mismanaged plastic waste. Stated by World Atlas, “Nearly 513 million tons of plastics wind up in the oceans every year out of which 80% is from just 20 countries in the world.” (Khushboo Seth, 2019) This statement is absolutely unbelievable to find out that a large amount of plastic pollution caused by only a few countries. The plastic pollution that exists in Indonesia has corrupted its rivers, wildlife, and even Indonesia’s source of food and water. The plastic pollution in Indonesia has possibly even affected the country’s economy by causing a limit to the source of food and water. As shown [image: ]in TR 5 , plastic pollution has mostly effected the waterways in Indonesia and clogged them up with rubbish. In Indonesia their air quality is very poor mostly due to burning plastic, waste, manufacturing. This has been a large toll on the city, wildlife and the people. Sources from Al Jazeera stated, “For generations, Indonesia’s Citarum River has provided fish to eat, irrigation for rice fields, and freshwater for drinking, washing and cooking for the millions who live along its banks. But today, it’s known as the most polluted river in the world.” (Al Jazeera, 2018) Although there are many polluted areas in the country, the most polluted place is Jakarta which is the capital of Indonesia. It is not only the most polluted city in Indonesia but is also one of the most polluted city in the world.TR 5: A boy on an old boat in the Citarum River, Indonesia. -> http://www.austroindonesianartsprogram.org/blog/most-polluted-river-world-citarum-river-indonesia
3.2- Reasons for differences of Plastic Pollution in Australia and Indonesia
There are numerous reasons for why there is a drastic difference between plastic pollution in Australia and Indonesia. A major reason for Australia being reduced more from plastic pollution compared to Indonesia is because of financial reasons. Australia is a first world country meaning that the country is somewhat advances and financially steady making it easier to finance ways to reduce and prevent plastic pollution. Indonesia being a second-world country means that they are less financially stable making it more difficult to reduce and prevent plastic pollution. Another reason why Indonesia is effected by plastic pollution more is because of being uneducated about plastic pollution and don’t know how to help some don’t even know what plastic pollution is.
Although plastic pollution has effected many countries in the world. Although it has destroyed many countries and the environment but it can still be reduced and prevented. The information below shows ways that the government, organisation, and what you can do to help prevent plastic pollution in Australia and Indonesia.
4.1 Government Strategy
The Australian government have numerous strategies to take on plastic pollution but they have constantly advised their citizens of Australia to reuse and recycle. But this way has not really gone to plan, as the Australian Government stated,” While plastic and packaging recycling in Australia is well established, only 14 per cent of plastic is recovered for recycling or energy recovery.” (Australian Government-Department of the Environment and Energy, n.d) The Australian Government has also supported industries to find a suitable solution for plastic pollution and even support the industries that recover material before they are casted into the environment and become an issue for wildlife and the land.
The Government of Indonesia have less strategies compared to the Australian Government but they still have somewhat reliable strategies. The ‘World Economic Forum’ stated,” The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry are teaming up with the Global Plastic Action Partnership (GPAP) to take an innovative and data-driven approach to solving the crisis.”(Kate Whiting, 2019) As well as Australia, Indonesia have relied heavily on recycling and reusing to solve the problem of plastic waste. Although plastic pollution still has a larger impact to Indonesia compared to Australia but this is still a great way to start preventing plastic waste.
4.2- Organisational Strategy
There are many organisations that are willing and that are even devoted to help with Australia and Indonesia that are suffering from plastic pollution. The car company Volvo in Australia decided to partner great organisations called Sydney Institute of Marine Science (SIMS), Fibercon and Reef Design Lab which are all not-for-profit producing eco-engineering products. These products will hopefully help put tiles reinforced with recycled plastic onto a seawall in Sydney Harbour to help biodiversity. A well-known organisation that helps prevent plastic pollution is World Wide Fund For Nature Australia(WWF) a organisation that reduce marine plastics, protect the coral sea, and protect marine wildlife.
There are also a few organisations in Indonesia that are helping take action against plastic pollution. A major organisation called ‘Global Plastic Action Partnership’(GPAP), which mentioned previously that they are teaming up with The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. This organisation aims to action by using circular economy solutions in coastal countries battling plastic waste and doing it as fast as possible. Another great organisation in Indonesia known as, Waste4Change, which helps provide a service to solve the mismanaged waste problem in Indonesia.
]4.3- Individual Strategy
Australia provides many ways their citizens can help individually every day. For example, people can purchase a reusable by doing this it can jute, organic cotton and recycled plastic made for shopping. By using a reusable bag, it can do many wonders for the environment and wildlife. every disposable plastic bag that ends up in the ocean or countryside is a danger to fish, birds and mammals. Although it is very little recycling has a big effect on the environment and saves many lives from mismanaged waste.
There are a few was that can have a major impact on plastic pollution in Indonesia. A good reliable way to help is by reusing and recycling. This is a small step but can have a big difference on the future environment and wildlife. A great help is by not littering on the streets or anywhere. These are a few things but can still make a difference.
In conclusion, this report has shown and compared two countries that are being impacted by plastic pollution and has even listed a few strategies to help fight against plastic pollution. But this can still be fixed, although plastic pollution has filled the earth’s lands and seas, and has corrupted many wildlife, you can still help save the planet’s environment and wildlife.
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