Health Promotion, Determinant Of Health And Approaches Of Health Promotion
“Newham life expectancy is 10 years behind a healthy life expectancy” (ONS, 2015). 35.6% of the working class are on low-paid wages whilst 37% of children suffered from child poverty to compare to 22 % in England. This is because 41% of adults living in Newham did not have a level 3 qualification and 4,500 homeless people that lived in Newham are placed under temporary accommodation (Trust for London, 2020). Moreover, strategies introduced by public health has been proved as an effective measure to tackle social determinant of health that impact on health inequalities (PHE, 2018).
The Ottawa Charter of Health promotion (1986), is a holistic empirical view systematic approach that aimed to provide an individual with adequate information and different activities to make an informed decision about their health and prevent the risk of diseases. Moreover, it aimed to empower individuals to acquire competence, courage and gain authority over their health and participate in decision making. Health promotion collaborates with multiple agencies and organisations to produce an effective long duration of health promotion activities through programmes, policies and diverse approaches (RUI hub, 2020; WHO, 2020).
The medical approach is operated by a medical expert for early diagnosis the treatment of childhood obesity. It focused to minimise morbidity and mortality rates through three levels of conceptual intervention. Primary prevention is applied to reduce or prevent the risk factors, e.g. educating people on a healthy diet, regular exercise, advice to stop smoking, immunization and encouraging 6 months exclusive breastfeeding on babies. Secondary prevention is to avert the progression of obesity through early diagnosis and screening to improve child health. Tertiary prevention helps to reduce obesity from getting the worst stage and caused other illnesses, e.g. informatics education on how to manage the condition, referrals, palliative care and rehabilitation (Nurse Key, 2017).
The medical approach is a scientific method that generates positive results in the prevention and early detection of childhood obesity. Though, individuals might be on a long waiting list for treatment which can deteriorate their conditions. The method has used diverse successful health programmes to achieve an effective result in public health. E.g. the vaccinations that are given to babies against poliomyelitis. Although, it relies only on medical perception and had avoided the environmental and social influence of health (PDHPE.net, 2015).
The behavioural change approach argues that healthy lifestyles are the ultimate key to good health. Public health campaigns are an effective measure that prompt people to a healthy diet, daily exercise and abstain from smoking. It motivates a change in behaviour through communication, health programmes and health persuasion to achieve a positive outcome. Moreover, there is complexity in identifying behaviour changes as relates to health promotion intervention on childhood obesity since intervention may be conducted based on the child’s need (Hardeman et al., 2005).
The education approach allowed individuals to acquire the awareness to make the right health decisions. This includes counselling, obesity programmes, leaflets, mass media and role-plays to minimise the risks and the management. Conversely, it might be difficult for an individual to make informed choices because it ignores the restriction of social and environmental influence on optional change. Empowerment enables an individual to make free choices, by obtaining relevant productive information with the essential skills to implement choices into practice creating space to develop change. Nevertheless, social change uses healthy public policies, legislation and developmental organisation to change individual unhealthy behaviour ( Nurse Key, 2017).
Beattie’s model (1991), presents a fundamental study on the approaches of health promotion through sociology and social policy schemes organised by the expert to persuade health activities on the individual (Naidoo & Wills, 2000). It is based on four paradigms for health promotion that emphasise intervention. Authoritative are health experts that persuade individuals by giving advice and information on diet. e.g. public health campaigns, obesity programmes and cancer screening. Legislative actions are policy frameworks and campaigns initiated to imposed penalties on food producers to promote a healthy diet, e.g. 20% of sugar reduction, soft drink industry levy and food labelling. Personal counselling and informatics earning are carried out by practitioners during clinical consultation based on individual health needs to put an action plan in place empowering them to make conformed choices about their health. Community development suggested that working together with local government, charitable organisations and the local campaign will enhance the specific needs of the community (Woodall, 2016).
Some health promotion campaigns launched to reduce the risk and effective management of childhood obesity in England. Change4Life (2009), a healthy weight, healthy lives is a government initiative proposed and emphasis promoting the diet and regular exercise to avert and change behaviour that causes overweight among children. Through the Change4 life strategy, other campaigns such as swim4life, sugar swap, play4life and 5 A day was initiated. It has generated effort in supplying materials for schools, encouraging families to adopt a healthy diet and improve physical activities to reduce the risk of childhood obesity (NSMC, 2015).
The Eatwell Guide (2016), recommended that daily healthy meals should contain the proportion of all food nutrients. Parents, schools and communities were demanded to provide their young ones with at least 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day to have a healthy diet and weight. The campaign had impact massive changes to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables, had reduced excess intake of high calories and saturated fat food. Also, has been proved successful in maintaining a stable weight among children (GOV.UK, 2018).
The 60 minutes daily exercise suggested that the age range 5 to 18 years are required to take part in these activities through PE, and other sports activities to make them stay active throughout the day. Adequate intensive physical activities supply effective strength to muscles, promote healthy bones, heart and lungs. It gives flexibility to the body posture, initiates crucial attachment to the brain for active concentration and efficiency in academic performance (NHS, 2019; PHE, 2016).
The soft drink industry level demanded that soft drinks should contain only 35g of sugar which is expected to be the daily maximum intake. Manufacturers that did not comply with the guideline will be imposed an industry level on their product. This is to reduce the excess sugar intake in children, preserve healthy teeth and prevent diabetes. Revenue that is realised from industry tax will be funded on healthy school breakfast, physical activities and obesity programmes (PHE, 2018).
Nutrition labelling is a national legal requirement that demanded manufacturers to analyse the nutrition information per serving on the food package. It promotes informed choices on food purchase and effective measures to monitor nutrition value, reduce excess intake of high calories and saturated fats to the body (FSA, 2018).
In conclusion, is difficult to define health because diverse economic factors could determine individual health impacting on health inequalities that create a sense of unfairness, breakdown of support, humiliation and loss of co-operation. Therefore, it is everyone’s job to tackle childhood obesity by adopting healthy life choices and behaviour change since diverse health promotion initiatives have been proved a successful intervention to reduce the risk and management of childhood obesity.