Impact Of Newspapers, Magazines And Internet On Destination Image
Impact of Newspapers on Destination Image
Research has confirmed that advertising that is placed in a more trustworthy medium, such as a newspaper, is perceived as more informative, credible, and reliable. Whereas advertising placed in less credible media like TV is likely to be less informative (Bauer and Greyser, 1968; Larkin, 1979; Kim, D. Hwang, Y. & Fesenmaier, D. 2005).
Researchers Robertson and Rogers (2009) defined newspapers as an important medium in tourists’ decision-making process. There were many earlier studies that newspapers had what is known as a carryover effect (Clarke, 1976; Givon & Horsky, 1990; Herrington & Dempsey, 2005; Tull, 1965). According to the research of Kim, Lee, Mjelde, and Lee (2014) concerning the carryover effect, for instance, newspaper reports had a positive yield on attendance with this media effect rising for the first four days after publication. Through information collection processes, potential tourists were then able to resolve any doubts and therefore improve the overall quality of their trip (Fodness & Murray, 1997; Park, J. 2015).
Making newspapers reader-friendly is the “single highest potential area for growing readership”, an institute research paper states. Shockingly, according to the paper, ease of interpretation does not revolve around design or placement of articles (Clow & Baack, 2004), nor do factors such as graphics and color relate numerically to ease of reading. Alternatively, readers want such things as more practical “go and do” information in stories, including phone numbers, dates, addresses, working hours, and website information. Nowadays, this should be considered as good news for the contemporary tourism industry (Kotzé, F.C. 2005).
A great percentage of printable advertisements for travel products and services appears in newspapers and magazines. Naturally, they comprise about half of all travel and tourism advertising expenditure. Around 75% of the people in the United States read a newspaper on a daily basis. Based on the fact that newspapers appeal to such a large audience, they are initially important opportunities for travel suppliers to exploit. Major local and international travel suppliers, such as car rental agencies and airlines, advertise habitually in major daily newspapers, with over one million distributions in surplus (Burke & Resnick, 2000; Kotzé, F.C. 2005).
Impact of Magazines on Destination Image
Printable media, as opposed to visual media, enable the reader to set their own pace, therefore offering the chance to make circumstantial connections and dwelling on the points that interest them (Assael, 1992). The outcome is that printed media provides a more comfortable learning environment where information can be learned and integrated more easily. For example, magazines offer high-quality data reproduction and coloring. However, most importantly, they are a medium of self-interest to their audience. Furthermore, magazines offer longer life than most other media sources (Nylen, 1986). Consequently, printed media are capable of providing more convincing messages and would therefore ensure a higher longevity in the change of attitude and behavior (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983; Kim, D. Hwang, Y. & Fesenmaier, D. 2005).
For over 60 years, magazines have had the strict advantage of showing a more realistic product in realistic color. While this advantage is no longer considered unique to magazines (with the introduction of color HD TV and internet), it is still a major element in magazine advertising (Russell & Lane, 1996; Kotzé, F.C. 2005).
There is a vast difference between magazines and newspapers, be it in content, time frame, or method of operation. For instance, with a daily newspaper, there is a sort of hurry-up deadline to meet the daily operation, whereas magazines are generally published weekly, monthly or even quarterly. Since these periodicals deal with more in-depth subjects than newspapers, magazine editors could often allow months for the development of an article to be published (Wilcox et al., 1995; Kotzé, F.C. 2005).
According to Scheler (2004), photo reproduction quality provided in magazines is obviously higher than newspapers, making them an excellent candidate for visually-oriented image building adverts that can provoke a strong emotional response. Newspapers, on the other hand, are read much more quickly, and often with a “skimming” mindset. Surprisingly, the creativity of newspaper advertisements is also affected largely by the medium’s photo reproduction proficiencies, which are clearly lower than that of magazines. However, it is also affected by page layout, since the larger paper size can fit more content. Newspaper adverts must stand out in the midst of that clutter. One Department of Tourism’s advertising agency, called Boelter and Lincoln, mentioned to focus on simple powerful visuals and, more importantly, a headline that gets straight to the point. Newspapers are a great medium to motivate its audience with an offer, according to the agency (Kotzé, F.C. 2005)
A special medium that differs from other mass media (such as TV and newspapers) or persuasion agents (such as promo, advertising, and brochures) is travel magazines, and it is one of the most crucial sources of information for tourists. In China, for instance, travelers consider fashion magazines (including travel publications) to be one of the most important information sources affecting their outbound tourism decisions (Sparks & Pan, 2009; Hsu, C. & song, H. 2013).
Impact of Internet on Destination Image
In modern times, the internet is recognized as the most expended source of information by its users (Choi & Lee, 2009; Sørensen, 2003). The internet has basically changed the way people collect tourism-related information when they plan on traveling and purchasing the trip (Buhalis & Law, 2008). Tourists now dedicate more and more time and effort on more unfamiliar destinations when searching for information before making their purchase decision (Fodness & Murray, 1999). “This is a particularly important process because information search is the first step toward the purchase of a product or service” (Murray, 1991; Park, J. 2015).
Recently, Internet approaches have yielded large amounts of user-generated content in the form of travel blogs and reviews (Huang, Chou, & Lin, 2010). Therefore, the internet is now seen as a crucial factor to the success of tourism products and services (Buhalis & Licata, 2002; Carson, 2005; Park, J. 2015).
Internet users are rising in number at a shocking rate, so shocking that nowadays, in certain European countries, exists a phenomenon that over 80% of the population is connected via, or regularly uses, the internet (ŠtetiĆ, S., ŠimiČeviĆ, D. & miliĆeviĆ, S. 2018).
Using the internet as a primary source of information for travelers is a vastly growing trend (Heung, 2003). “The Travel Industry Association of America (TIA) reported that 78% of travelers, or 79 million Americans, used the internet in 2005 for travel or destination information” (TIA, 2007; Mccartney, G., Butler, R. & Bennett, M. 2008)).
According to Xiang and Gretzel (2010), there are to gigantic trends that have developed on the internet, namely internet searching and social media networks. These trends have significantly impacted the global tourism system. Websites are able to provide a virtual experience for tourists about a specific destination, and are able to impact the development of a destination image in the tourists’ minds.
Yoo et al. (2013) states that official government-run tourism websites have been a major source of information for journalists and tourists alike. Government-run tourism sites are considered, from tourists’ perspectives, as reliable sources of information (Cox, Burgess, Sellitto, & Buultjens, 2009). “Social media refers to internet-based online media in which individuals with common interests, goals, and practices engage in social interactions constructing personal profiles and sharing information and experiences” (Chiu, Hsu, & Wang, 2006; Park, J. 2015).
“HIF is a winter festival that takes place in a remote and isolated location, 140 kilometers from Seoul, the capital of South Korea (hereafter Korea). This unique festival enables travelers to enjoy various winter activities; for instance, visitors can catch mountain trout by either drilling an ice hole in a lake or by walking into an icy water pool to catch the fish with their bare hands.
They also can enjoy various winter activities including bobsledding, skating, and snow sledding. CNN America’s website introduced HIF as one of 7 Wonders of Winter through its travel section on December 1st, 2011. This image has spread through domestic and international media, and HIF has been covered by domestic TV news programs, newsletters, magazines, and travel-related websites” (Arsal et al., 2008; Kim, J., Ahn, K. & Song, H. 2017).
As a result from the widespread media coverage, the number of visitors to the festival has increased “from 1.33 million in 2010 to 1.44 million in 2012, and finally to 1.5 million in 2013”. Based on the research related to the media’s influence on destination image, potential tourists’ dependence on online information, be it social media networks, private blogs, etc. has increased drastically as a direct result of the widespread adoption of information devices such as laptops, tablets, and smart phones. Thus, tourists always refer to social media websites, that provide a plethora of information to both aid the tourists with their travel decisions, as well as to create and change perceptions and images about destination and travel offerings (Arsal et al., 2008; Kim, J., Ahn, K. & Song, H. 2017).
It is not a simple fact to neglect that the current boom in tourism can be closely related to the media. Information and data are exceedingly accessed using it and an education regarding the plethora of interesting attractions found around the globe is gained just by following up with the aforementioned media channels. The world is now simply a global village, with our eyes capable of circumnavigating the world from the comfort of our home. The independent variables tested a high yet varying correlation to the dependent variable.
Television viewing can alter the viewer’s perception of a particular place or destination image. Nowadays, movies and TV series are shot in numerous locations, news reports span a wider geographical area. Even documentaries are becoming more versatile and interesting. Tourists are now able to have visual access to countless destinations just by sitting in front of a television set. Films are now made with the intent of capitalizing on destination image of numerous and sometimes never-heard-of-before locations, altogether aiding the tourist’s travel decision with high visibility, low interaction media.
The immediacy and contemporary utilization of radio makes it a key element in aiding destination image. However, radio frequencies span a narrow scope, making it ideal for national tourism, or for tourists who wish to delve further in their travels. In other words, if a tourist makes the decision to travel to a certain location, and actually does, radio would be an effective means for this tourist to travel further in and around that location.
Printable media, as opposed to visual or auditory media, enables the reader to set their own pace when utilizing this media, therefore offering the chance to contemplate the points that interest them. The result is that printable media, be it newspapers or magazines, provides a more comfortable learning environment where information can be learned and integrated more easily. A great percentage of printable advertisements for travel products and services appears in newspapers and magazines. So, naturally, it would be safe to state that they comprise about half of all travel and tourism advertising expenditure, and that advertising and tourism agencies must exploit these diminishing media to their, and to the tourists’, advantage. These agencies could include but are not limited to, major local and international travel suppliers, such as car rental agencies and airlines. This would definitely ensure a boost in the quality of the tourist’s decision-making process when choosing their travel destinations.
Nowadays, the internet has become the most expended and utilized source of information available. Users can watch, read, listen to, and collect as much information as they want, from as many sources as they can find, in as little time as possible. The internet has basically changed the way people collect tourism-related information when they plan on traveling and purchasing the trip. Tourists can now even plan their trip, pay for expenses, and get a sneak peek preview (using Google Street View, for instance) of their destination, all from their home- or office-bound devices. Furthermore, online purchasing can enable them to purchase flight, hotel, and tour products and services without practically any physical work.