Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Scrutiny Of Its Universal Application
According to Maslow there are basic needs of humans characterised as ‘physiological’ needs are generally acquired as the starting point for motivation theory are called physiological drives. physiological needs remain the most prepotent of all needs. the foremost motivation would be the physiological needs somewhat than every other. An individual who is absent food, safety, love, and esteem perhaps hunger for food more intensely than for everything else. Uncertainty needs are unsatisfied, and the body is then controlled by the physiological needs, all supplementary needs may become simply absent then It is reasonable to illustrate the whole organism by speaking unassumingly that it is hungry, for notice is almost entirely pre-empted by hunger. All, capacities are placed into the provision of hunger-satisfaction, and the association of these capabilities is almost exclusively determined by the one resolve of satisfying hunger. (Maslow, 1943)
The safety needs.— physiological needs are comparatively well quenched, there then arises a new set of needs, which we may classify about as the safety needs. the physiological needs are correspondingly factual, although in a lesser degree, of these desires. The body may consistently well dominate by them. They might serve as the almost exclusive organizers of performance, all the dimensions of the body in their service, the whole body as a safety-seeking mechanism. hungry man, that the leading goal is a resilient element not only of his current ecosphere. Practically everything looks less important than safety.
A man, in this state, if it is intense enough and prolonged enough, may be described as existing almost for safety alone.
The love needs If mutually the physiological and the safety needs are fairly thriving then there will emerge the love and affection and belongingness needs, and the whole cycle. person will sense intense, as never formerly, the absence of friends, or a wife, or children. then will hunger for affectionate relations with people in general, namely, for a place in his group, and he will strive with great passion to accomplish this goal (Maslow, 1943) The esteem needs Altogether individuals in humanity with a few compulsive exclusions to have a prerequisite or desire for a stable, firmly based, (usually) high evaluation of themselves, for self-respect, or self-esteem, and for the esteem of others. By firmly grounded self-esteem, These needs may be categorised into two subordinate sets. These are, first, the desire for strength, for achievement, for adequacy, for confidence in the face of the world, and for independence and freedom. Then the need for self-actualization. Similar if all these needs are gratified, we may still frequently expect that a new discontent and agitation will soon advance unless the individual is undertaking what he is incorporated for. A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write if he is to be ultimately happy. This want we might plea self-actualization.
Theory on the hierarchy of needs reflects universal motivations and criticism of Maslow has remained that the certain order of needs proposed by Maslow does not pertain to everybody disapproval of Maslow has been that the unambiguous order of needs proposed by Maslow does not apply to everyone. On one hand given the example of a starving mother who deprives herself of her nourishment to feed her deprived children, efficiently allowing her love needs to operate previous to the satisfaction of her own physiological needs (Webber, 1969) (Gurin, 2017) starving artist contains self-reflection and is captivated by it, possibly to the point of self-admiration. he or she disregards or minimizes basic survival needs in the goodwill of chasing enlightenment through art and philosophy. The prevailing yearning for aesthetic involvement, beauty, and truth is not every day to higher moral ends but are viewed as ends in themselves. the starving artist repeatedly draws from typical society and views the interest of societal norms such as a career and a family as unfaithfulness of individual core values. At some point, the starved artist may come to distinguish these normative general needs as genuine and lying dormant within oneself and redouble struggles to gratify them to emerge as a fully comprehended refined individual stranded on the firm basis of his civilizer self. (Gurin, 2017)
To investigate the relationship between Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Herzberg’s dual-factor theory. Based on his research, Herzberg derived two- factor theory of motivation. the factors that inhibit displeasure as hygiene influences because its influence on the employee was related to that of physical hygiene on the body. The purpose of the hygiene is to inhibit relapse of the original state dissatisfaction. These comprise salary, policies and administration, supervision, security, working conditions, status and interpersonal relations. These factors do not upturn worker productivity. Quite they safeguard that productivity does not drop. factors
which bring about job satisfaction are termed motivators. These are positive factors which can motivate up, past one’s neutral position. These involve work itself, recognition, advancement, or the possibility of growth, achievement, responsibility, etc. These factors are applicable in motivating an individual to high-class performance. Paralleling this theory with Maslow’s need hierarchy, Maslow’s lower needs are alike to Herzberg’s hygiene factors and Maslow’s higher needs are alike to Herzberg’s motivators. Especially, Maslow’s physiological, security social and the factor of status from the category of esteem needs, are similar to Herzberg’s hygiene and the rest of esteem needs and self-actualization (Ozguner & Ozguner, 2014)
Maslow claimed that beings generally satisfy their lacking needs before embarking on superior needs, though he is self-proclaimed that this is not always the case. individual’s drive towards self-actualization and self- transcendence as being favourable to society as an entire since these personalities were beyond altruistic, spiritual, and moral. Individuals who do not follow the undeviating growth-motivation path could agonize from the variability of psychological and physiological deficits and stress since of the dissatisfaction of their lower deficient needs. Henceforward from the detail analysis the conclusion is derived that Maslow theory on hierarchy of needs don’t reflect universal application
- Gurin, J. D. (2017, July). Archetypes Based on Maslow’s Need Hierarchy. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 43(2), 183-188.
- Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
- Ozguner, M., & Ozguner, Z. (2014, JUNE). A Managerial Point of View on the Relationship between of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and Herzberg’s Dual Factor Theory. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 5(7), 207 – 215.
- Webber, R. A. (1969, December ). Culture and Management: Text and Readings in Comparative Managemen. American Anthropologist, 71(6), 1230-1231.