Risk Of Obesity In Children And Infant Feeding

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According to several studies, obesity in children becomes an epidemic and a health challenge globally. Different leading health authorities and researchers recommended that solid foods should be introduced in infants at age of 6 months. Unfortunately for young, society believes that a fat baby is a “’cute baby.”.’ Though, rolls on the arms and hands, hanging cheeks, legs and wrists are not even close to cute. It is indicative of an un-healthy unhealthy condition of obesity for infants and newborns from an excess of fat on their bodies and it leaves organs to struggle more. Those infants who before 4 months stopped breastfeeding or those who were never breastfed and before 4 months were introduced to solid foods were most likely to be overweight six times as compared to be obese at age of 3 years (Little, Legare and Carver, 2018). Chances of being obsessed for babies who are formula-fed or those who before 4 months were stopped breastfeeding are one in four. If solid foods were introduced in infants between 4-5 months of age then their chances of being overweight were one in twenty. According to several studies, there is no effect of solid foods on breastfeeding babies whether they were obese or not at age of 3 years (Sahoo, 2015).

The reason behind the introduction of solid foods after 4-5 months is that babies need a mature digestive system to digest it properly like the ability to take solids back to their mouth and then swallow it (Taylor, et al., 2017). Babies do not have that much mature digestive system so according to several studies the best advice is to breastfeed babies till 6 months and then introduce solid foods. This will lower infection chances and also prevent babies from getting obese or overweight (Simmonds, et al., 2016).

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Ideas for the Product Development

Before going towards the idea for developing a new product range which will help in the prevention of rapid gain of infant weight, it will be considered that some best practices should be used or guidelines to get help in making new product range for infants in their first year of life. There are some guiding principles that will be considered whilst making product range as complementary feeding for breastfeeding child (Brown, 2018).

Age for Introduction of Complementary Foods

Continue to breastfeed from birth till the age of 6 months, and after the age of 6 months introduce the complementary foods (Skinner, et al., 2018).

Responsive Feeding

According to psycho-social care, principles practice responsive feeding. Specifically: directly feed infants and for children who become older are sensitive to satiety cues and hunger, assist them that how they feed themselves. Feed infants patiently and slowly and encourage children not to force them to eat (Simmonds, et al., 2016). If children refuse to eat encourage them by introducing different foods based on texture, combinations and tastes. During meal minimize distractions if child easily loses interest. Maintain eye contact and talk to children during feeding because during feeding periods it’s time for children to learn and they need love from their parents (Brown, 2018).

Time Period for Breastfeeding

Continue to feed frequently until the age of 2 years as per the demand of children (Brown, 2018).

Complementary Food Amount

After the age of 6 months start with a little amount of food and as the child gets older increase the quantity according to their hunger and continues to breastfeed them frequently (Skinner, et al., 2015). In developing countries besides average intake of breast milk, for 6-8 months infant they need 200 kcal approximately per day, for 9-11 months 300 kcal per day, and for 12-23 months 550 kcal per day. These estimates differ in industrialised countries because of intake of average breast milk is different (Brown, 2018).

Consistency in Food

Increase food variety and consistency gradually as the infants become older according to their abilities and requirements. At the beginning of the sixth-month semi-solid, pureed and mashed foods can be eaten by infants (Scells, et al., 2017). Most of the infants after 8 months become able to eat finger foods also. Most children after 12 months become able to eat the food which was eaten by their family but is careful about their need for nutrients. Avoid foods like raw carrots, nuts, grapes, etc. which results in choking (Brown, 2018).

Content of Nutrients

To fulfil their needs of nutrients feed the different variety of foods. Food like eggs, fish, meat, etc. feed them daily as possible. Nutrient needs cannot beget fulfilled through vegetarian diets at this age so use fortified or supplementary products to fulfil nutrients needs (Sahoo, et al., 2015). In some areas of the world, mothers who are breastfeeding their children also need fortified products or vitamin-mineral supplements for themselves to ensure their breast milk contains certain nutrients which their babies need. These products are beneficial for both pregnant and pre-pregnant women (Brown, 2018).

Feeding in Illness or after Illness

During illness increase, the intake of fluids, frequently do breastfeeding, and give child appetising, varied, favourite and soft food and encourage them more to eat supplementary foods. After illness encourage children more to eat food very often (Brown, 2018).

Our Product Idea

We aim to make product range which will follow all the above-mentioned guidelines for all the age groups between the time periods of 4-24 months. By following the above guidelines it will help us to create a range of products which will also prevent obesity or over-weight (Scells, et al., 2017). We will consider all the points of above guidelines which covers area like (population i.e. overweight mothers, a density of the solid product, how mothers will feed, etc.). And also provide what are the limitations like hygiene issues, allergic to the product, etc (Sahoo, et al., 2015. (Haschke, Ziegler and Grathwohl, 2014).

Our Product Range by using PICO Structure

We will target different age groups and according to them make our product range by using PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes) structure (Ogden, et al.,and our main focus will be on overweight mothers that how their children do not get obese because for overweight mothers their babies are at high risk of getting obese. For overweight mothers we will target the first year of baby’s life and introduce our first year product range accordingly so their babies do not get obese in their beginning first year and also in future we will introduce later stages products for babies at high risk but currently we will focus on baby’s first year (Ogden, et al., 2016).

Stage 1 products (4-6 months)

At the age of 6 months, babies show some signs that now they are able to eat solid foods. Some babies are different for getting ready to accept solid foods. But before 4 months do not introduce solid foods (Little, Legare, & Carver, 2018). For this age group, we make a Creamy porridge and, Fruity porridge and Milkose which is salt or sugar-free had a smooth texture, gentle flavour and isare the great source of iron and vitamin D (Ogden, et al., 2016). Population: Our Creamy porridge and Fruity porridge will target all type ofoverweight mothers and if their breast milk did not fulfil the needs of iron and Vitamin D then this these porridge will fulfil the nutrients need of the baby (Little, Legare, & Carver, 2018). Intervention: Creamy porridge and Fruity porridge. Comparison: As compare to other products our products are gluten-free and are vitamin rich (Scells, et al., 2017). Outcomes: These 2 products will fulfil the needs of vitamin D and iron in babies even if breastfeed milk did not fulfil. But still at this stage breastfeeding is recommended. Also, these products are best because they do not increase the weight of the baby (Sahoo, et al., 2015). Kitsantas, et al., 2016). Our third product Milkose is formula milk for overweight mothers who stopped breastfeeding after 3 months or also for those who never breastfed their babies. Milkose has the right amount of protein similar to the protein level of breastfed milk according to WHO standards because if protein level exceeded from 1g/100 kcal then it will become the cause of over-weight. Intervention: Creamy porridge, Fruity porridge and Milkose.

Comparison: According to several studies comparison has been done on mothers having different BMI. Mothers having BMI < 25 was considered as Normal, BMI between 25 and 30 considered as overweight and BMI greater than 30 was considered as obese (Haschke, Ziegler and Grathwohl, 2014). For this stage, we introduce two solid foods that can be given after 4 months and our third product Milkose can be given from birth of the baby according to intake table which we will provide with our product. We introduce this range of products after doing some researches on overweight and obese mothers with normal mothers that how they can give solid foods or formula milk and what is the right amount for their babies. We made these products after doing researches and put the right amount of ingredients in our range. Outcomes: These 3 products will fulfil required amount of nutrients which baby at high risk of obesity need and most importantly it is best for mothers who are overweight or obese even if mothers do not do breastfeeding our Milkose can fulfil it. But still at this stage breastfeeding is recommended (Sahoo, et al., 2015).

Stage 2 products (6-8 months)

For this age group, we know that after 6 months babies become more hungry and only breastfeed milk did not fulfil their hunger requirements so we use selected ingredients which are grown by our trusted farmers and make 2 products from these ingredients which are Banana porridge and Multigrain porridge (Simmonds, et al., 2016). Population: In some populations breastfeed milk do not fulfil the hunger requirement of developing baby at the stage of 6 months and most of the overweight or obese mothers stopped breastfeeding at this stage or never breastfed their baby so our range of products for this age group will fulfil their hunger (Skinner, et al., 2015). These two products are especially for overweight or obese mothers but normal mothers may also use these products according to the intake table which we will provide with our product for better growth without getting obese and can fulfil baby’s hunger. Intervention: Banana porridge and Multigrain porridge. Comparison: As compare to other products our products in this range contains gluten and a mixture of grain and fruits for hungry babies. For babies at risk do not give them solid foods frequently. Play or do some different activities with them when they cry because most of the mothers think that their baby is hungry if a baby is crying so they always gave them food which results in baby getting more hungry and obese. Normal mothers can give these products according to their baby satiety or whenever they feel that the baby is hungry. Outcomes: These products will help mothers to fulfil their babies required amount of food and will remove their babies hungerbaby’s hunger who are at risk of obesity. We also provided intake table for both type of mothers for baby’s better growth because an excess of any food can cause obesity or overweight in baby (Skinner, et al., 2018).

Stage 3 products (8-12 months)

For this age group, most of the mothers stopped breastfeeding both normal and overweight or obese mothers, so for this age group, we introduce 2 products which are tasty and with different textures. Also, these products will fulfil complete nutrients requirement for this age group even if children of this age group cannot be provided with breast milk. Population: MostIt is not necessary that only overweight mother’s baby become obese also babies of thenormal mothers at this age stopped breastfeeding or some continue, for both type of get obese after 8 months when their mothers these products suits best.introduce different solid foods like what family is eating they gave to their children. This is not good for babies that their mothers gave them solid foods without knowing the right amount of nutrients for a baby’s better and healthier growth. Intervention: Fruit cereal and Multigrain barley porridge (Simmonds, et al., 2016).

Comparison: After doing researches we made this product line a complete food for both mother’s babies and later we will also introduce different flavours in this product range so mothers will give only our product to fulfil their baby’s hunger and they will avoid different foods because we will give them different flavours. As comparecompared to other products our products contains almost every nutrient and have a new texture and different tastes according to this age group children tastes. Outcomes: Rich in ingredients to fulfil the complete needs of children of this age group (Taylor, et al., 2017especially children at risk. The weight of the babies usually increases at this stage because they are always hungry but with our products, this can be controlled. We did a lot of surveys about the weight of babies which are normal or at risk and after this, we introduce daily complete diet of babies for this age group (Kitsantas, et al., 2016).

Stage 4 products (12-24 months)

For this age group, children need increases and only breastfeed milk is not enough also most of the mothers stop breastfeeding their children so we introduced 2 products which have balanced meals and up to 5 vegetables. Population: These products are for every type of mothers because these products will help in their children grow and we also make these products tasty because at this stage children need some adventurous recipes (Ogden, et al., 2016). Intervention: Vegetable, Chicken Curry and Tomato, Turkey meal. Comparison: These products are ingredients rich and can serve the full meal for this stage children.

Outcomes: Best for mothers who stopped breastfeeding and want their children healthier and taller. Our products are best because they do not increase weight or obesity (Skinner, et al., 2015).

Limitations or Potential Risks

For every product we have provided intake guidelines, for overweight or obese mothers they have to follow those guidelines otherwise our product will not work properly. Avoid solid foods before 6 months especially for those babies who come from obesity background families for this we have introduced our formula milk with proper guidelines of how to feed babies but do not overfeed as it will not be good for baby’s health and growth (Skinner, et al., 2015).

After the age of 6 months, our products may contain gluten, so for allergens kindly consult before giving our products to your children. Otherwise, our all products are made according to the age groups and they are easily digestible and all of our intervention is according to the high-risk population i.e. if mothers are overweight then our products will cater easily the situation (Skinner, et al., 2015).

All of our products are hygienic and can be given through mixing of some pure water and before putting our products in any container kindly clean it completely (Skinner, et al., 2015. Do not use different solid foods together with our products as other food may contain more fats. Our product range contains every nutrient which is necessary for each age group with instruction for daily intake and is complete food for baby. If different foods will be used together with our products than it will cause obesity (Haschke, Ziegler and Grathwohl, 2014).


This product is entirely a new idea, mostly infant’san infant’s digestive system is not much developed so the processed and formula foods become the reasons offor early obesity. Once the product will be provided to the masses then it can help new bornnewborn not to gain unnecessary weight and fats under the skin. By using these products growth of infants can be slow down because these products contain lower protein content but it can reduce future obesity risk in the future. But it will not affect too much on children of overweight/obese mothers because overweight/obese mothers infants always show accelerated growth.


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  2. Haschke, F., Ziegler, E.E. and Grathwohl, D., 2014. Fast growth of infants of overweight mothers: can it be slowed down. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 64(Suppl. 1), pp.19-24.
  3. Kitsantas, P., Gallo, S., Palla, H., Nguyen, V. and Gaffney, K., 2016. Nature and nurture in the development of childhood obesity: early infant feeding practices of overweight/obese mothers differ compared to mothers of normal body mass index. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 29(2), pp.290-293.
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  6. Sahoo, K., Sahoo, B., Choudhury, A. K., Sofi, N. Y., Kumar, R., & Bhadoria, A. S. (2015). Childhood obesity: causes and consequences. Journal of family medicine and primary care, 4(2), 187. (Sahoo, et al., 2015)
  7. Scells, H., Zuccon, G., Koopman, B., Deacon, A., Azzopardi, L., & Geva, S. (2017, November). Integrating the framing of clinical questions via PICO into the retrieval of medical literature for systematic reviews. In Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (pp. 2291-2294). ACM. (Scells, et al., 2017)
  8. Simmonds, M., Llewellyn, A., Owen, C. G., & Woolacott, N. (2016). Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Obesity Reviews, 17(2), 95-107. (Simmonds, et al., 2016)
  9. Skinner, A. C., Perrin, E. M., Moss, L. A., & Skelton, J. A. (2015). Cardiometabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(14), 1307-1317. (Skinner, et al., 2015)
  10. Skinner, A. C., Ravanbakht, S. N., Skelton, J. A., Perrin, E. M., & Armstrong, S. C. (2018). Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in US children, 1999–2016. Paediatrics, 141(3), e20173459. (Skinner, et al., 2018)
  11. Taylor, R. W., Williams, S. M., Fangupo, L. J., Wheeler, B. J., Taylor, B. J., Daniels, L., … & Davies, R. S. (2017). Effect of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding on infant growth and overweight: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA paediatrics, 171(9), 838-846. (Taylor, et al., 2017)


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