Strategies, Models, And Approaches Of Health Promotion

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The pieces from the extensive literature available are evident that the communities having the empowerment and the healthy life motivation are observed to be the healthy communities. The practices, which include on the routine basis are the concerns for promoting health in the form of decision making, achieved through the networking and supporting strategic practices. However, referring to such potential mechanism of the communities, it is identified that the unhealthy and devastating growth of diabetes is continuously growing in the UK regions. It is estimated that almost more than 3.7 million individuals are diagnosed with diabetes. Further, it is also diagnosed that in the South West region the count of the individuals has reached to 299,999.

Also reported that the number of diabetic individuals is growing, as 3.7 million individuals belonging to age group 17 and above are diabetic patients. The identified two critical stages found in diabetic patients include Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is the inherited condition at the childhood level, in which the diabetes is not associated with obesity, but the presence of insulin production is 0. On the other hand, Type 2 diabetes occurs obesity and begins late in life, also caused by the stress conditions; however, it can be cured and controlled through several healthy life routine practices. Further, referring to concerns of managing the increasing spread of diabetic cases, it is perceived that there should be immediate and positive health management steps needs to be taken. According to the , it is evaluated that the community-led approach is significant for the health improvement strategies and policies to be implemented.

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Therefore the purpose of the report is to develop the in-depth framework, which includes strategies and the guidelines for implementation of the health-promoting programs, which can contribute in reducing the growing trend of the people living with diabetes. The report is structured in three parts, exhibiting the strategies, the community empowerment and ownership discussion, and the models and approaches used for the motivational purposes.

Part 1 – Three Strategies to Engage Community for Implementation of Program

In accordance with the , the diabetes is viewed as the non-communicable disease; the condition in which the amount of the glucose exceeds the average level in the blood, hitting the maximum point. Further, its categorization, i.e. as Type 1 and Type 2 is defined as Type 1 is the diabetic condition, in which the cure is not possible, as the body lacks the ability to produce the insulin, which is perceived as the autoimmune disease. In comparison, Type 2 diabetes is mostly linked to the lifestyle factors and is having significant chances of being controlled. Most of the evaluated risk factors included are overweight conditions or obesity, and the continuous growth of stress and anxiety, mainly among the young age groups. However, referring to diverse culture, societies, and the communities in the UK, it is perceived that control the health mechanism is the critical concern for the practitioners. In general, the community is viewed as the social living system, in which the dwelling individuals holds the distinctive characteristics, including the geographical location, interests, cultures, behaviors, attitudes, and the lifestyle. However, it is identified that the way of motivating them and persuading their behavior to get involved in the particular activity is critical, but can be established in the form of the social activity .

In regards, the number of evidence in the form of research work is identified, which indicates that the health promotions for the cure of diabetes can be maintained in the community-centred system. The development of the community-based health protection mechanism, implementation of the Laveraks Community-based Interaction Ladder is the significant source. The use of the ladder critically taught the practitioners to identify the difference between the steps of the ladders, i.e. recognizing where the participation is required and in other cases the requirement of the immediate action. It is also suggested that at the initial level, i.e. the stages initiated from the community readiness level, continued with involvement, participation, engagement, and organization, the practitioners are required to participate. Thus, reaching the last stages, such as the development of the community capacity and the community control results in the successful implementation of the action.

According to the research of , the practice facilitation (PF) strategy in the community-based environment is identified to be significant for the curing the chronic illness associated with diabetes in the long run. It is reported that the strategy serves to control the three risk factors, i.e. the cholesterol, blood pressure, and the haemoglobin. The rationale is that the community-based consultations will involve the independent and social support systems with quality resources, which in actual motivates the victims to control over the lifestyle mechanism for healthy living. The influences from the PF strategy intervenes the trained facilitators to initiate the communication, empower the individuals of the community to discuss and share their routine, for the development of the health mechanism steps. , commented that the particular sessions of communication support the development of the team, which results in the internal capacity building for prioritizing the activity for the individuals. For example, providing the diet plans for the routine food consumption and exercises, etc.

On the other hand, , presented the use of the Dissemination strategy, to educate the community-based groups regarding the control of diabetes. It is identified that the use of the strategy is significant in sharing the information to the broader percentage of the group. Besides, the particular strategy also involves the clinical practicing audiences, which are exemplarily responsible for sharing the evidence-based information and health management routines for the specific community members. Under the influence of the strategy, the educational outreach, in which the video content and personalized messaging are considered as the most consistently effective practices. The practitioners in the community-based group serve as the social institution for supporting the health life management, making them realize the chronic issues and boost their motivation through healthy practices. Further, the youth prevention strategy involves the peer-led education programs to promote the healthy lifestyle for diabetes prevention. The strategy will also cover the two stages of the ladder, i.e. the community participation and the community engagement. The use of the approach is fundamental, as , asserted that the young individuals who have diabetes are prone to socialize and seek the active and personalized help of the practitioners. Besides, the peers engaged in the program, motivate concerning sports and exercise, while the consumption of unhealthy food and the sweetened product consumptions are reduced.

Part 2 – Core Domains of Capacity Building for Community Empowerment & Ownership

Along with the increasing number of diabetic cases in the UK regions. There is an issue associated with the low empowerment and the motivational ways given to the community-based individuals. It is evaluated that mostly the communities belonging to the minorities sector are the ones, which faces the critical issues of controlling the diseases. The identified factors include poverty, which leads to low accessibility to the practitioners, the absence of education, and the resources that cannot be accessed due to the lower dwelling status . In relevance, it is perceived that the practice of developing the community-based health discussion and education sessions is the valid option to be taken. However, again the significant barriers will be the presence of poverty and the less focus and attention given to the individuals belonging to the minority communities. , further highlighted that there is the major issue of low empowerment delivered by the practitioners, which reduces the level of motivation of the patients. The factors involved include the different culture, distinctive lifestyle, and the major one is the linguistic differences. In regards, the technique of the capacity building is engaged for health promotions. The purpose of the technique is to form the small community group, which prioritize the health discussion requirements on the cultural basis. The included activities are free from the impact of racism, linguistic differences, and poverty status. Further, in accordance to , ladder model for the community building, it is highlighted that for the success of the capacity building there should be the presence of the local leadership to empower the group services and the members.

Moreover, regarding the concern of the diabetic cases growing, , the research explored that health management is becoming the critical concern for the government. The rationale is that the health reforms are occurring at the lower pace or else not covering the requirements. It is also evaluated that there is the lack of professionalism in the practitioners, which also leads to the limitation of the resources and the adequate knowledge required for the treatment. Therefore, referring to the increase of empowerment and the motivation for overcoming of the obesity issues that is the primary cause of Diabetes Type 2, capacity building in the community groups is of high demand. The purpose of the capacity building is to increase the motivational ability of the individuals to succeed in achieving their health and disease management goals. Further, referring to the capacity building for the community-based diabetic preventions and controls; two components are required, i.e. the resources and the management. However, both the constituents should be based on the local culture. It indicates that leadership and management are reliable for understanding the demands and needs of the individuals. Besides, the absence of the barriers such as the linguistics or the lack of confidence is achieved by the empowerment, and the practitioners deliver to the community-based group.

Part 3 – Models & Approaches of Health Promotion for Motivation & Education

However, referring to the implementation of the strategies, such as developing the group of PFs for the social assistance or the implementation of the dissemination strategy; the criticality is that changing the lifestyle habits mainly of the youth segment is highly tricky . Similarly, it is also highlighted that along with the lack of empowerment the practitioners provide to the patients; the issue they face is the difficulty of changing the food consumption habits of the youth. On the other hand, the continuous increase of the anxiety behavior among the young generation and the increasing smoking habits are also impacting the lifestyle of the diabetic person to get changed. However, in regards, the community-based practitioners should focus on implementing the Stages of Change Model. In accordance with the change model theory, the change occurs eventually with the passage of the time and the continuous efforts. Therefore, in regards, it can be perceived that the constant meeting sessions of the community-based groups will gradually change of the behaviors. However, the practitioners have to ensure the implementation of the following stages:

  • Pre-contemplation – Addressing the behavior of the patients for being ready for the acceptance of the change.
  • Contemplation – At this stage, practitioners should evaluate the needs and the resources, which the patients could successfully consider for changing their routine.
  • Commitment – The development of the goals for accepting the change (use of the diet charts; feasible exercise routines, etc.)
  • Action – The integration of the empowerment and the group discussions will result in the initiation of the motivation that will help in the implementation of the action. The reason is the development of confidence, which grows with the presence of the support and motivation. Some of the approaches that are helpful at the following stage are: encourage implementing introspection and self-analysis, motivate the patients to rethink about their unhealthy living style, and through engaging pulsing strategy keep on discussing the risk factors linked with junk food or the sweetened food consumption .

Maintenance and the relapse are considered as the common grounds when the patient is already on track to reduce the obesity level and is highly motivated and confident in the changing lifestyle. Besides, it is recommended that the groups should be rewarded with healthier options, such as gift hampers of sugar-free or protein products, etc.

Further, the most straightforward approach for overcoming the critical issue of growth of diabetic in the UK young age groups is to develop the culturally appropriate education program. The reason is that along with the health mechanism, and the education resources will be based on traditional cultural values. , mentioned that such approaches exhibit the advocacy behavior. Such educational programs serve the benefits of limiting the barriers, which increases the de-motivational patterns for the individuals.


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