Study and Implementation of a Real-Time Home Automation Systems

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In our modern life, home automation systems are important because we have access to it at various locations with a high value, which saves time by automatically reducing human work. Energy saving is one of the most important requirements that we aspire to. The motion sensors, temperature and humidity sensors (DHT11), Ultrasonic sensors and LDR, are remotely and automatically sensors with programmable Arduino. Domestic automation for electronic control devices used remotely and automatically.

NodeMCU and ESP32 can be added to provide more ease and facilities to users with sensors instead of Arduino, because they have more advantages than it.

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Keywords: Smart Light, SMS (Short Message Service), Ultrasonic sensor Hc-sr04, Automation Systems, Bluetooth, Android, ESP8266, ESP32, NodeMCU

Introduction and basic concepts

Light gives us the chance to see. Light is a key component of any job you might choose to do, either in a building or outside. In addition , people feel confident with certain light intensities for any given task and location. For example, for waking a film at home, a low intensity level of light is preferable, while light for videoconferencing on a PC is required, because a typical satellite camera normally can not capture good images under low light conditions. Because of this, the demand for lighting systems is increasing to meet the needs of the consumer in different applications and locations. Smart lighting can create different kinds of atmosphere, such as romance, relaxation, pleasure and comfort. Also it is a central component of intelligent living. Experts expect smart lighting to replace normal lighting in the near future and become the major industry [1,2].

To monitor them, light, appliances, heating and cooling systems, as well as other electrical equipment, is related. This work can be added as Bluetooth, NodeMCU 12E module (Wifi), and ESP32 (Bluetooth and WIFI). In this work this system can be added in the home automatic lighting system. The systems for home automation are increasing rapidly, used to provide all people with comfort, convenience and safety. The majority of home automation systems are now used to provide comfort for the elderly and disabled and to reduce human labour [3].

Literature survey of related work

The previous documents show that home appliances, such as lights, dryers, stoves, etc, are controlled by three methods: IR, Bluetooth, and GSM. The RemoteXy software creates an application for the android computer and Arduino IDE creates a design for Arduino. This offers the cost-efficient, convenient and easy-to-use home automation framework. Enhanced energy saving feature [4].

Differing technologies, like ZigBee[5], Z-Wave[6], Global Mobile System (GSM)[7], General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)[8], Infrared[9], wireless loyalty (Wi-Fi)[10-11] and Bluetooth[12], have their own advantages and disadvantages in each system. A wireless home automation system with a Bluetooth-based base can be installed in the existing home at a low price and easy to install[13]. In a physical range from 10 m to 100 m, Bluetooth technology is capable of sending data in series up to 3 Mbps according to the Bluetooth system type.

No problems with the nodeMCU device were identified but the use of the Arduino Uno was complicated and cost greater than the NodeMCU procedure when attaching another device such as the ESP8266 to the WiFi connection, as it does not have this feature as standard. Similar to the Arduino UNO system, the benefits of using the NodeMCU are the high volume storage and processing. ESP32 is a fully optimized Wi-Fi and Bluetooth IoT solution, making it the convergence solution in its entirety. ESP32 with Bluetooth module is better than NodeMCU and Arduino[14,15]. The Comparative between NodeMCU, Arduino Uno and ESP32 in [Table 1 ].

Table.1. Comparison between NodeMCU, Arduino Uno and ESP32


Number of cores 2 1 1

Architecture 32 Bit 32 Bit 8 Bit

CPU Frequency 160 MHZ 80 MHZ 16 MHZ



RAM 512 KB 160 KB 2 KB

FLASH 16 MB 16 MB 32 KB

GPIO PINS 36 17 14

Busses SP1,12C,UART,12S,CAN SP1,12C,UART,12S SP1,12C,UART

ADC Pins 18 1 6

DAC Pins 2 0 0

The proposed system of home automation light intensity by changing the distance

Arduino Ultrasonic LED project sensor for power savings by measuring object size. The Ultrasonic sensor shows the distance by LED when an object closes. When LED1 is on that implies that the distance from an object is 10 cm, and led4 is 40 cm. To increase lighting, the number of LEDs can be augmented. The selected LEDs are white. The lighting increases sequentially in the code by light The longest possible distance to save power. When distance is increased All LEDs are turned off larger than 40 cm. Ultrasonic LED project sensor is somewhat like a scale to save the power we use to measure a distance. as in Fig. 1. Ultrasonic LED project sensor is somewhat like a scale to save the power we use to measure a distance. The HC-SR04 sensor range can be easily expanded with code changes.

Fig.1. The Circuit

The leds have been assembled to make it smaller and put it as a product at the future like lamps, in this case the lightening won’t scatter Thus its strength will increase.

Features of Ultrasonic sensor hc-SR04 :

To measure the distance between an object, the HC-SR04 Ultrasonic sensor. The transmitter and receiver modules are supplied with ultrasonic. HC-SR04 transmits high frequency sound and reflects the signal to echo when an object is detected. Ultrasonic sensor is used to avoid robots, distance measurements, water level measurements and much more. It working at 5VDC, 15mA, 40Hz, max range 4m, min range 2cm, measuring angle 15 degree [16].

Fig.2. Connection diagram of Arduino and Ultrasonic sensor hc-SR04 in 123d circuit site


  1. Arduino Uno
  2. Ultrasonic sensor Hc-sr04
  3. 4 x LEDs (Can be increased)
  4. 4 x 220ohm resistor (Can be increased)
  5. Breadboard
  6. jumper wire


After the laboratory measurement and calculations from the relation P = V I Where Arduino voltage equal to 5v, the results in [Table 2 ]. These results are indicate that the total power consumption is very low Compared with smart lamps. LEDs can be increased to be suitable for Corridor, Parking – Interior, Stairway and Storage Room in the buildings. They also can be increased more and more to be suitable for Loading Dock, Locker Room, Toilet, Living room, kitchen and Breakroom, and when increasing it more and more to be suitable for Office and reading room as recommended light levels from the Egyptian code (308), which can be used as a guide for other types of buildings.

Table.2. Circuit Results


(V) I P

(W) Luminous intensity Total Power


LED1 1.75 8.235mA 0.0415 700 mCd 0.1165

LED1+ LED2 1.98 9.318mA 0.0469 1400 mCd 0.12196W



LED3 2.1 9.882mA 0.0498 2100 mCd 0.1248



LED3+ LED4 2.14 0.01A 0.0504 2800 mCd 0.1254

When measuring the light intensity of the one LED by Lux Meter is equal to 2.7 Lux. It can also be calculated from the relation Φv=Iv⋅Ω and Ev=ΦvA

Φv for lumen, Iv for candela, A for surface area and Ω for the angular span in steradian. [Table 3 ] provides recommended light levels to some places in the building from the IECC 2015 .

Table.3. light levels from the IECC 2015

Place Light Level (Foot Candles) Light Level (Lux) Power Density (Watts per SF) NO. of LEDs

Corridor 5-10 FC 50-100 lux 0.66 7 : 14

Parking – Interior 5-10 FC 50-100 lux 0.19 7 : 14

Stairway 5-10 FC 50-100 lux 0.69 7 : 14

Loading Dock 10-30 FC 100-300 lux 0.47 14 : 43

Locker Room 10-30 FC 100-300 lux 0.75 14 : 43

Toilet 10-30 FC 100-300 lux 0.98 14 : 43

Breakroom 10-30 FC 100-300 lux 0.73 14 : 43

The next table [4] is according to the Egyptian code(308).

Table.4. light levels from the Egyptian code(308)

Place Light Level (Foot Candles) Light Level (Lux) NO. of LEDs

Stairway 12 FC 120 Lux 44

Corridor 6 FC 60 Lux 22

Living room 15 FC 150 Lux 56

Office room 30 FC 300 Lux 111

Bedroom 12 FC 120 Lux 44

kitchen 12 FC 120 Lux 44

Toilet 30 FC 300 Lux 111

Other materials can be added to the proposed system to provide more ease and facilities to the users with software:


There are two main components of hardware and software. The part of the hardware is composed of 6 major smartphone hardware components and the Arduino UNO microcontroller panel with 14 digital I / O pins is based on Atmega328. The 14 pins used for interfacing home appliances and Bluetooth module Connect Bluetooth module TXD pin to Arduino Uno’s RX connection and vice versa, shown in Fig. 4. Data is transmitted to the Arduino interface via Bluetooth from a smartphone, as in Fig. 3 [17]. The software section consists of Arduino IDE and Bluetooth smartphone terminal programs, which are used for wireless communication between the smartphone and Arduino board. PIR Sensor motion sensor, DHT11 (Humidity and Temperature Sensor) This sensor includes measurements of resistive humidity as shown in Figure [4,5] below. With the increased strength of light, the resistance of LDR decreases and vice versa. Analog output values can be provided by the LDR and connected to the Arduino analog pin. In the LDR output the intensity of the led bulb is controlled [18].

Fig.3. Block Diagram of Bluetooth Based Home Automation System [17]

Fig.4. PIR, DHT11 Sensors

Fig.5. PIR, DHT11 Sensors With Bluetooth Module

Introduction To NodeMCU ESP8266

NodeMCU is an open source for ESP8266 wifi. The ESP8266 is an economical Wi-Fi chip designed with the TCP / IP protocol for Espressif Systems as in Fig. 6 [19].

Fig. 6. NodeMCU Development Board/kit v1.0

Complete Integration Solution With ESP32

ESP32 is a fully optimized Wi-Fi and Bluetooth IoT solution. The ESP32 is a low-cost , low-energy device for a variety of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth microcontrollers. In a wide range of IoT applications, the ESP32 is much stronger than its predecessor ESP8266. ESP32 is therefore expected to play an important role in the development of future IoT systems and integrated projects [20].

Fig.7. ESP32 Pinmap

Software architectures:

Many of the Arduino software as Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Amazon Alexa & Sinric and Remotexy application (To connect between Bluetooth and smartphone).

Block Diagram In Proteus Program

Fig.8. Motion Sensor with signal 1 In Proteus


Fig.9. DHT11 Sensor measurement In Proteus Program

Remotexy site and application

Remotexy application used to transmit data serially from smartphone to Arduino board using Bluetooth module, NodeMCU and ESP8266 WIFI Module, Also to reduce the power consumption and LED Intensity of the home with a visual control ‘slider’ and switch as in fig.10 below.

Fig.10. LED Intensity Control

Amazon Alexa (Beta) and sinric site and application:

The data is transmitted serially from smartphone to NodeMCU and ESP32 via voice commands using the Wi-Fi module. it will do it for you automatically only by voice commands. We will use an Amazon ability named Sinric to connect NodeMCU and ESP32 with Amazon Alexa[22].

Fig.11. NodeMCU with three LED

Conclusion and future works


Automation system requires to make homes smarter and more convenient for the eye. By controlling the lighting in such a way that the lighting level is always accurately matched to the actual need allows to save on the energy costs and to improve the human comfort and efficiency. Automation light, In this proposed system when an object comes close the ultrasonic sensor indicates the distance using LED. The number of LEDs can be increased to increase the lightening.

When the distance increased The lightening will increase Sequentially in the code to light The largest possible distance to save the power. The results are indicate that the total power consumption is very low Compared with smart lamps. LEDs can be increased to be suitable for The place Required for this lighting in the home.

It can be added Directly controlling (as Bluetooth, NodeMCU and ESP32) and other materials can be added to provide more ease and facilities to users with motion (PIR)sensor, Temperature and Humidity sensor (DHT11) and LDR to control the intensity of lighting to reduce the Power consumption it is possible to reach high effectiveness in energy management.

Future works

For future work it is suggested to develop by Reducing consumption of power where white LEDs is more power consumption But it is more comfortable for the eye.

Ultrasonic sensor is good but there is sensors more sensitivity and less power consumption, These sensors can be chosen.


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