Swine Influenza And Birds Influenza: Transmission, Pathogenesis And Treatments

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Swine flu

Swine flu is defined as one of the viral infections that appeared in pigs as a result of exposure to the virus known as H1N1, swine influenza viruses that spread in swine are really different from influenza viruses that usually circulate in people, it transmits to humans and infects the respiratory system, caused by the flu, it can circulate among pigs throughout the year, but most outbreaks appears during the late fall and winter months comparable to outbreaks of seasonal influenza in humans. Treatment for swine flu Most types of influenza, such as swine flu, require only relief and control of symptoms. In some cases, the doctor prescribes additional medicines to help with infections

  1. Home remedies take enough rest and sleep to give the immune system the ability to fight viruses
  2. Drink enough fluids such as juices and syrups to prevent dehydration
  3. Using pain relievers and hypothermic that are sold without a prescription
  4. Medicinal therapies the treatment for Influenza antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza,

There are four different antiviral drugs: that are recommended for the treatment of influenza: (oseltamivir, peramivir, zanamivir, and baloxavir), It is possible to resort to anti-viral medications in some cases where the possibility of suffering from the occurrence of certain complications increases, and these complications behave within 24 to 48 hours since the onset of symptoms, in fact, these antigens may be exposed to resistance by Viruses earmarked for their elimination and to avoid, so this use is often restricted to those groups that are more vulnerable to complications:

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  1. Children under the age of five
  2. The elderly who are 65 years old
  3. Pregnant women
  4. People who suffer from obesity who have a BMI of 40 or more
  5. People who suffer from chronic diseases

What should you do if you got exposed to this flu?

Immediately Consult with the doctor when you’re at big risk of serious flu complications and if you have signs of flu. Small children, adults 65 years old and more, pregnant mothers, people at high risk of flu complications and those with other medical problems such as heart disease, diabetes and asthma.

Symptoms of swine flu

Symptoms often begin to appear between one and three days after exposure to the virus, sometimes

  • -Nausea and vomiting
  • -Fever
  • -aches
  • -Coughing
  • -Runny or stuffy nose
  • -Red eyes
  • -Feeling pain in the body
  • -Pain in the throat
  • -Headache
  • -Feeling tired
  • -diarrhea
  • -Respiratory system

Diagnosis Swine flu

is diagnosed clinically, and this is done by monitoring the symptoms and signs that appear on the person and ensuring that the patient is aware of his health After that, a rapid laboratory examination is performed, such as taking a swab from the pharynx and the nose to see if the patient has a type A or type B virus. If the result is positive with type B, this means that he is not likely to have swine flu, but if it is A this means that he is infected Complications from swine flu

  • -The injury may double and lead to the following symptoms
  • -Pneumonia is the most serious complication of the flu
  • -Inflammation of the nasal sinuses
  • -Ear infection
  • – bronchitis Control and Prevention of swine flu
  • -promote and Take the seasonal flu vaccination
  • -special note in general for infection control guidance advices vaccination of health care workers and patients as a necessary step to reduce seasonal influenza transmission in these settings
  • – Wash hands frequently with soap and water
  • -Stay away from crowded places to avoid injury
  • -See a doctor if any flu symptoms appear and Encourage people and to provide space with symptoms of respiratory infections to stay far enough possible away from everyone else.
  • -Be attended Attention to respiratory hygiene & cough since going back to work is almost always essential. HCP will use a facial mask throughout patient care operations If signs like those of sneeze and coughing are perhaps existing.
  • -assure that all HCP, counting Employees which might not be directly influenced by the health care institution which offer critical routine facilities are mindful of the rules on sick pay.
  • – People under the protection of a droplet must be removed from hospital treatment when medically necessary.
  • -Take the necessary measures and precautions when infected with the disease
  • -Taking antivirals as a preventive treatment

Bird flu

— Influenza A virus, transmitted by viruses introduced to birds generally recognized as avian flu or bird flu, is somewhat similar to swine norovirus, human norovirus, horse norovirus, and dog flu, because an illness triggered by flu virus aches which have entered a single host, is a ZOONOTIC outbreak with a natural source, primarily in animals. There are three forms of flu virus A,B & C Avian influenza is classified into two pathogenic types: low pathogenicity (LP) (HP) or high pathogenicity, which emerged in China in 1996, the most prevalent strain of HPAI, H5N1, which also has low pathogenic strains found in North America.


Most human cases it spreads or Evidence in either treating dead sick birds or contact with contaminated fluids. Very commonly transmitted by touch among contaminated and uncontaminated birds. Even, this flu can propagate by airborne secretions, and the virus itself may not be an airborne disease.

More pathogenic strains may impact egg development which are much more lethal. Highly pathogenic strains are spread rapidly within flocks and may kill the flock throughout 28 hrs. Human-to-human communication is so much more delightful without prolonged contact.

Symptoms Among people it can vary and starts with normal flu-like symptoms:

  • • diarrhea
  • • cough
  • • headache • muscle aches
  • • respiratory system
  • • runny nose • sore throat diagnosis A test designed to recognize avian influenza. The test is called influenza A/H5 (Asian lineage) virus real-time RT-PCR primer and probe set.
  • • fever (over 100.4°F or 38°C)

Preliminary tests will only be given in four hours. Nevertheless, it is not commonly known that your doctor can also take the following tests to check for signs that may be linked to the existence of a virus that causes avian influenza:

  • • chest X-ray some further tests can be done to assess the function of your heart, kidneys, and liver.
  • • white blood cell differential
  • • nasopharyngeal culture
  • • auscultation (to detects abnormal breath sounds)


Antiviral drugs such as zanamivir (Relenza)or oseltamivir (Tamiflu) may assist to cause the severity of the infection. After symptoms started the drug must be taken 48 hours. That disease that causes human influenza can increase the resistance to the 2 most common types of antiviral medications rimantadine (Flumadine) and amantadine. These drugs should not be used to cure the flu.  Others in close contact with your family or you may sometimes be recommended antivirals as a preventative measure, even if they are not tired. You will also be located in isolation to avoid spreading the virus to others. The doctors can put you on a breathing machine if you develop a serious disease.

How is the avian flu is prevented? we can minimize our risk of flu by avoiding:

  • • undercooked poultry
  • • contact with infected birds
  • • open-air markets
  • • The FDA has approved a vaccine intended to protect against avian influenza by maintaining proper hygiene and washing our hands daily, but the vaccine is not actually available to the public. Ad Specialists


  1. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/professionals/infectioncontrol/healthcaresettings.htm
  2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avian_influenza https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/virus-
  3. transmission.htm https://www.healthline.com/health/avian-influenza


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