The Authors Of The Ern Malley Affair And Are Moderately Justified In Creating The Hoaxes Because They Offer Serious Cultural And Political Commentary

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Hoaxes, parodies, and satire instigate cultural coupled with political commentaries. Albeit parody’s appeal to humor, it provides a basis for evaluation aimed at the transformation of specified targets after some extensive ridicule. In comparison, emanates from disliking individuals or objects. Through reason, it becomes possible to attain the reforms desired. The ‘Ern Malley Affair’, as well as ‘Borat,’ incorporate hoaxes, parodies as well as satire for the attainment of various objectives. The ‘Ern Malley Affair’ developed from James McAuley’s invention of Ernest Lalor Malley with Harold Stewart’s assistance in 1943 (Lozano, 2015). The events occurred in Australia targeting Angry Penguin -a publishing house- as well as its editor, Max Harris. The copywriter receives poems which he publishes in 1944 after the schemers impersonate Ern’s sister owing to her brother’s supposed death at a young age of only 25 years. The hoax culminated in Harris’ trial as a result of the poem’s obscene nature. On the other hand, Sacha Baron Cohen co-wrote and produced ‘Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan’ in 2006 (Lozano, 2015). Larry Charles directed the satirical mockumentary. The broadcast focuses on Borat Sagdiyev’s journey to different regions in the United States, faking an identity as a journalist from Kazakh. She documents real-life interactions featuring its residents. The feature attracted controversy prior and after its release. As a result, Arabic countries banned it except for Lebanon. Whereas the United Arab Emirates permitted viewership from the region’s audience, it heavily censored the broadcast.

Thesis statement

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As a result of the hoaxes created by the Ern Malley affair and Borat’s authors, their works become moderately justifiable because they create political and cultural criticism.

The Ern Malley affair stemmed from the worries expressed by McAuley with respect to the erosion of his English roots. He extensively acknowledged his European learning and disregarded exhibitionist poets coupled with the philistinism attributable to the lifestyle in Australia at the time. Kermode (1994, p.36) explains that Harris, as well as his friends ‘, had similar aspirations’ regardless of their application of different attitudes and strategies with respect to the rapidly spreading modernism. Hence, their sophomoric methods incorporated coupled with European trends inadequately. McAuley and Stewart’s hoax leads to the development of 16 poems featuring the ‘tragic lifework’ attributable to Malley. They imitated modern poets depicting their literary fashion from studying the works of notable personalities such as Dylan Thomas and Henry Treece. The pieces included false illusions in addition to his quotations producing horrible verses. McAuley and Stewart also created Ethel, Ern’s sister responsible for sending the letters.

The Darkening Ecliptic emanates from a series of political events which culminate in Australia’s cultural modernism (Lloyd, 2001). The Angry Penguins primarily produced pieces reflecting the influence from various overseas regions owing to the influx of European refugees coupled with American servicemen. They used private means to increase the access of print publications into Australia. As a result, a literary market with supported modernist art began thriving. Through Ern Malley’s work, McAuley and his counterpart Stewart articulated the variations with respect to poetic diction in addition to their accompanying consequences. The poets aimed at demonstrating vers libre’s differences when contrasted to regular forms. Hence, it became easier to criticize the avant-garde style adopted by Angry Penguins, which disregarded the traditions attributable to the cultural provisions which governed poetry at the time. Malley poems focused on the publishing house’s propensity to deviate from traditionally established norms, which led to its loss of implicit guidance (Lloyd, 2001, p.21). McAuley and Stewart regarded regular forms as a means through which artists depicted external skills which transcended their psychological impulses. The conceptualizations adopted by angry penguins advocated for poets to capitalize on sudden intuitive developments with respect to writing. As a result, corps exquisite took precedence, thus highlighting the plasticity that Harris attributed to various literary traditions (Lloyd, 2001, p.21). The Darkening Ecliptic provides a parody through which McAuley and his counterpart mimic the practices associated with Angry Penguins which strives at engaging readers. The Palinode mentions ‘a transposed version’ alluding to the hoaxers’ pieces (Malley, 2002). However, lucid comments prompt evaluation owing to the veiled attacks they direct at the personnel associated with the publishing house, particularly Harris.

However, the poems facilitate some scrutiny into Australia’s culture. For instance, ‘Culture as Exhibit’ paints an image of stagnancy coupled with decay (Malley, 2018). The authors describe the presence of ‘swamps, marshes, borrow-pits, and other areas of stagnant water’ (Malley, 2002). Furthermore, it hints at prospects of absconding from cultural provisions necessary in forming a people’s identity. Hence, the persona exclaims ‘Culture forsooth!’ and commands Albert to get his gun (Malley, 2002). The piece also emphasizes on the importance of reviewing ‘Friction as a Social Process’ in ensuring that a person acquired the various prerequisites necessary with respect to the culture considered plausible by McAuley and Stewart (Malley, 2002). The hoax’s justification emanates from the clues embedded in its body to help Harris in discovering the plot McAuley hatches with Stewart. Alluding to the anopheles serves to caution Harris, albeit his inability to decipher the stanza’s meaning. In Palinode, McAuley and Stewart provide hints that it could be too late with regards to discovering the clues which unveil a distraction featuring an ‘ancient ruse’ that is almost forgotten (Malley, 2002). It satirically alludes to Harris’ diversion from publishing modernists’ poems providing an avenue through which his rivals metaphorically ‘snap off’ his wrist.

Ern Malley’s pieces such as the Baroque Exterior explore the clash between different eras which heralds the cultural provisions necessary in shaping the literary values of contemporary Australian poets. The persona explains gradual changes which occur with regards to Australia’s traditions and values. The transformation reverberates through the literary works produced by contemporary Australian poets paving the way for modernist ideals. The first stanza indicates that it is ‘the efflux of a period’s error’ (Malley, 2002). Furthermore, he also acknowledges the prospects of ‘new architecture’ which drives him to curse, indicating his distaste at the changes afoot. Through the satirical remarks, the persona acknowledges Australia’s transformation in producing poetic pieces and other constructs of the human intellect. The Sonnets for the Novachord attaches some significance to performing ancestral duties, which serves as a form of vindication from ‘our high notions of a new pitiless faith’ (Malley, 2002). Baroque literature advocated for the exploration of various religious themes in literature development, as evident in Ern Malley’s work. Furthermore, the obligations implied focus observing cultural aspects. McAuley’s literary skills extensively incorporated aspects of English literature which encompassed metaphysical poetry. It extensively influenced the parody by defining the authors’ literary choices to discredit Angry Penguin’s work.

The satire incorporated into the ‘Ern Malley Affair’ provides a glimpse into the political atmosphere of different nations, including Australia as World War II unfolded. Petit Testament mentions utterances which affirm the Socialist Reich’s chiliasms. Furthermore, it notes the weeping in Footscray’s gutters from the Spanish. The persona also notes the scourge which afflicts Mubo, a village liberated by the Australian army in 1943. Initially, Japanese imperialists exercised their jurisdiction over the region. Apart from civic tensions, Malley also indicates that scrub-typhus increases the dangers evident in Mubo. Regardless of the stifling environment of war, the persona highlights the benefits of such circumstances, which include the acquisition of wisdom. Despite the inaccuracies intended by McAuley and Stewart in developing the Petit Testament, descriptions aimed at cultivating imagery facilitate an understanding of the realities associated with political clashes, albeit the parodies involved. Moreover, the persona concludes the piece by indicating that ‘there is a moment when the pelvis explodes like a grenade’ (Malley, 2002). The satirical poetic lines foster an understanding of the consequences anticipated from a harsh political climate and its capacity to catapult involuntary societal changes.

Similarly, Borat relies on parodies, satire, and hoaxes focusing on American culture and politics. Cohen’s character, ‘Borat’ legitimately goofs his victims into engaging in behavior that depicts bigotry coupled with racism (Frigerio, 2017). The incorporation of humor into the film demonstrates indifference to aspects such as poor treatment of ethnic minorities, which is considered as cringe-worthy in other societies. For instance, Bobby Rowe laments the prejudice directed at Muslims and individuals with a homosexual orientation. Borat advocates for the bombing of Iraq. Instead of attracting the crowd’s dissent, he is cheered on. The satirical feature depicts Cohen as a moralist dedicated to conducting an inquiring into Western culture. Kazakhstan’s government sponsors Borat Sagdiyev’s journey to the United States. New York provides the appropriate location where Borat acquaints himself with American humor. In the company of Azamat Bagatov, they travel across the United States filming different aspects relating to the lifestyle of the country’s residents. The United States provides a residence for different cultures. However, the nation’s minorities experience discrimination ranging from hateful comments as well as violent crimes. Moreover, the waivers availed to respondents before the documentary kicks off validates their reactions as genuine.

Borat depicts a culture which allows the objectification of women in America. After falling out with his driving instructor, the hoaxer approaches a General Motors dealer. He requests for help in obtaining a suitable for a trip across the United States. Their selection focuses on something appropriate in achieving primary objectives as well as attracting the opposite sex. Among the suggestions offered include a corvette and Hummer H2 (Blouke, 2015). Albeit Borat’s final choice which leads him to settle for a cheaper car valued at $750. He seeks the company of a prostitute in Atlanta. After Azamat leaves Borat in Houston, some fraternity brothers offer him a ride. The journey leads to the revelation of Pamela Anderson’s sex tape after he declares his intention to marry her. In California, Azamat and his counterpart Borat manage to locate Pamela Anderson at a signing organized by Virgin Records. He makes a kidnapping attempt which highlights Kazakhstan’s traditions customarily used when making proposals. The frightened Anderson runs off whereas security officers arrest Borat as he tries to chase after her. Such events indicate a poor perception which is directed towards American females.

In Atlanta, the party Azamat makes Borat attend indicates the intolerance foreigners endure from Americans. It becomes apparent, particularly where he relies on Kazakhstan’s procedures which govern business interactions. Furthermore, the parody provides an avenue through which Borat depicts an extreme reaction to Jews (James, 2016). In so doing, he attempts to bring into perspective Kazakhstan’s culture, which aligns with anti-Semitic views. In the documentary, poor behavior denies him and Azamat accommodation from the Marriott Hotel. As a result, an old couple of Jewish origins becomes the only solution owing to their vacant bread and breakfast facility. The paradox further showcases the two Kazakhstanis purchasing a bear for protection as they feel insecure in the couple’s presence.

The satirical mockumentary provides a glimpse into how American political figures participate in issues affecting the society and aspects which account for the country’s traditions. Such activities serve as a unifying factor as opposed to setting the precedence for a tense environment. For example, Washington DC provides an avenue for Borat to interact with Alan Keys. The leader- with affiliations to the Republican Party- discloses his participation in a parade promoting gay pride in America (Pratt, 2015). The feature also showcases Borat’s recitation of America’s national anthem which formulates an integral part of cultural heritage. Even so, the journalist’s rendition incorporates segments from Kazakhstan’s anthem culminating in a horrible performance. In Arizona, Borat in the company of Azamat chance upon a huge gathering of Pentecostal believers. The multitude brings together politicians and policymakers within the region. It includes a congressman, state senators in addition to judges. Moreover, it also incorporates some input from activists dedicated to anti-evolution.

‘Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan’ (2006) in addition to ‘Ern Malley Affair’ indicate the extent to which hoaxes, as well as satire, elicit public delight (Saunders, 2018). Regardless of the underlying objectives, their subjects fail to depict a similar level of enthusiasm. For instance, Borat attracted numerous lawsuits. The students traveling with Borat commenced with legal proceedings accusing the documentary makers of fraud. In addition, they also cited a disregard for the terms incorporated into the contract. On the other hand, the publication of poems written by Ern Malley resulted in Max Harris’ trial as a result of their obscene nature. The predominant issue in both productions relates to obtaining consent from targeted parties.


The reliance on hoaxes, parodies coupled with satire introduction of film or literature pieces attracts justification, particularly where it instigates commentaries on political as well as cultural issues. The productions and publications often target specific audiences. Furthermore, it either leads to positive or negative perspectives with regards to a region’s political climate and cultural provisions. However, it catapults the extensive alienation of individuals who perceive themselves as victims of such plots. In such circumstances, it increases their possibility of seeking legal redress, especially where they harbor feelings of involvement without informed consent. Albeit the justification which accrues to hoaxes, they sometimes reaffirm the beliefs prevalent among the targeted audience.


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  3. James, W. C. (2016). Borat and Anti-Semitism. Journal of Religion & Film, 12(1), 2.
  4. James, W. C. (2016). Borat and Anti-Semitism. Journal of Religion & Film, 12(1), 2.
  5. Kermode, F. (1994). The Ern Malley Affair. The New Republic, 210(14), 35.
  6. Lloyd, B. (2001). Ern Malley and His Rivals. Australian Literary Studies, 20(1), 20.
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  11. Saunders, R. A. (2018). Crossing the boundary: ‘Real-liworld’geopolitical responses to the popular 1. In Popular Geopolitics (pp. 105-126). Routledge.


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