The Lifetime Of The Prophet Muhammad And Al-qur’ān As The Book Of Guidance
Al-Qur’ān is the Book of Guidance that covers all aspects of human life such as economy, politics, sciences, ethics and many more. While Sunnah is everything that has been related from the Messenger. Generally, Sunnah gives an explanation on certain verses of Al-Qur’ān that are unclear. Therefore, Al-Qur’ān and Sunnah cannot be separated because it is fundamental of Islam.
Thus, this study will discuss the definition of Sunnah by the Scholars in different terminology of Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh. Next, it discusses the types of Sunnah that can be divided into three which are Sunnah Qauliyah, Sunnah Fi’liyyah and Sunnah Taqririyyah. In addition, hadith are also included as sunnah, such as Hadith Mutawatir, Hadith Ahad, Hadith Qudsi and Hadith Nabawi. Moreover, this study also discussed the different categories of compilation of sunnah and hadith as part of the Sunnah. Lastly, this study also included the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad Sallallahu Alaihi Wassallam and others complilation. This discussion is important as it is salient for all of us especially Muslim to habe better and clear understanding regarding the topic, Sunnah.
Sunnah, also known as sunna or sunnat, which was derived from the Arabic word sunnan, which is a body of literature that discusses and prescribes the traditional customs and practices of the islamic community, both social and legal. The teachings are not necessarily based on the non verbally transmitted record of the teachings, deeds and sayings, silent permission (or disapprovals) of the islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as various reports abouts Muhammad’s companions. The sunnah is also defined as a path, a way and a manner of life; All traditions and practices that were performed by the islamic prophets. To muslims they have become a model to be followed as a guidance to attain Allah’s mercy.
Hence, the quran and the sunnah make up two primary sources of islamic theology and law. The quran reveals the aspects of what has to be followed as muslims, meanwhile, the sunnah are the actions that were performed by the prophets to show example to the people, to be practiced in their daily life. For instance, the Quran says “ وَأَقِيمُواْ الصَّلاَةَ ’’ which means perform the prayer, and the prophets taught the people how to pray in a proper manner which has become the sunnah that has to be fulfilled as muslims. In contrast, the prophet Muhammad’s sunnah was not only preserved through hadith, however it was mostly mentioned in the quran. During those times, the word sunnah was used with the meaning “manner of acting” whether it is good or bad. During the pre-islamic period, the term came to refer to any good precedent set by people of the past, including the prophet Muhammad. Influencers of imam Al- Shafi’i, argued for priority of Muhammad’s example as recorded in the hadith over precedents set by other authorities.
The quran clearly states, the responsibilty of Muhammad as messenger of Allah. The sunnah of the prophet includes his specific habits, words and practices. These practices of the prophet helps us to lead a responsible life with our family, friends and the society to build and maintain a peaceful life. upon him) in which he said, “Whosoever does a good Sunnah will get the reward for it and the reward of others who followed him in doing the same thing until the Day of Judgment. Sunnah in this sense is mentioned in the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, whosoever does a bad Sunnah will have the punishment of doing it and the punishment of others who followed him in practicing it.”(Muslim).
On top of the above, Sunnah could also mean mustahabb (مستحبّ), which means recommendation. When used in relation to Islam, a Sunnah is a religious action that is encouraged and rewarded, but is not mandatory, and is not Haram (a sin) if you don’t do it. For example, it is Sunnah to do Wudhu (clean oneself) before sleeping. It is not counted as a sin if it was not followed.
According to the technical meaning , in hadith theology it is defined as saying, action, approval or attribute, whether physical or moral ascribed to the prophet. The sunnah was reconciled in the 8th by legal scholars- Abu Abd Allah Al Shafi’i, he recorded the sunnah of the prophet, which has been preserved as an eyewitness as his words, actions and hadith. Later on, these compilations were strengthened by other muslims scholars that had knowledge in Ilm Al Hadith, the science of determining the reliability of individual traditions. Thus, the sunnah was used as the tafsir of the Quran to understand the meaning of the text and in fiqh as the basis of legal rulings that have not been discussed in the quran. According to the muslims prophet Muhammad was the best role model and an example to be followed, due to his attributes and morality. He lived his life fulfilling the commands of Allah, fighting for the rights of islam and being a good sould by treating everyone equally. Most of practice and history were stated in the quran, and some that has been recorded as his sunnah which people have been practicing as custom till today. Imam Ahmad said based on his observation sunnah consists of the reports transmitted from the messenger of Allah, it also contains the brief explanation of the quran which contains its direction.
To conclude whatever has stated above, different scholars have various perceptions regarding the meaning of sunnah. However, all of them conveyed the meaning of the sayings, doing practices and silent approvals of the action of prophet Muhammad. As the quran says 8:38, Say to those who have disbelief if they cease, what has previously occurred will be forgiven for them. But if they return – then the precedent of the former peoples has already taken place. Reason well, therefore, O People, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the sunnah and if you follow these you will never go astray. He basically told the Ummah, as long as you followed the Quran, and tried to be as much like him as you could, you will have your place in Heaven.