Feudalism Impact On Human Health
Disparities in any country lead to disputes among public moreover drag country towards disasters and lagging behind development. It can also lead to poverty that can cause so many health hazards directly or indirectly. Poverty is becoming one of critical social problem of Pakistan as 32 percent of Pakistan’s total population is lying below food poverty line and 42 percent are below poverty line on human poverty index. It will effect population nutritional status hence leads to diseases like Marasmus and Kwashiorkor etc. It can also lead to mental and physical retardation. Moreover poverty will effect literacy rate that can lead to diseases people will be unable to understand value of balanced diet and unable to use resources effectively. Poverty will lead to minimal access to health services that will further compromise health (Suthar, Sarki, Qureshi, Solangi, & Mangan, 2016).
Now days Pakistan is suffering from so many crisis such as political, economic, industrial, educational and social in the form of political instabilities, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, social inequalities. Here it will be discussed as poverty and social inequalities in one of district named Tharparkar, Sindh (Pakistan emergency situational analysis, May 2014).
Karl Marx emphasizes on social classes as representation of social inequalities. According to Marx social conflicts arise between industrial class and servant class because industrial class draws labor from servant class but keep them away from resources of daily living (Oberschall, 2010).
Thar Desert extends over India and Pakistan, most lies in India. In Pakistan Tharparkar is a 23rd district of Sindh province which occurs in the south east of Sindh and almost spread over 20,000 sq kilometers. About 90 percent of peoples live in villages. A large area of Tharparkar composed of Thar Desert. Mithi is headquarter of Thar. Thar is one the most backward area of Sindh because feudal people have most of the resources in their hands enjoying all the luxuries of life on the other hand laborers has minimal resources thus living miserably.
Government is also neglecting Tharparkar as district is not having sound infrastructure, no development, common people do not have resources of income. Tharparkar is one of the largest district in Sindh which had about 7 million cattle population and they use it for food, water, transport etc. Another source of income for some people are leasing out agricultural lands. There are only two sources of water in region, rain and well. However rain is not a proper aspect although the clay water drawn from wells was unhealthy for drinking, this water usage is 97 percent (Huda & Burke, 2011).
Feudalism in local Elites:
There is an exceptionally solid impact of neighborhood elites in all pieces of Sindh, specifically upper Sindh, and these affect all parts of the lives of everyday citizens. They additionally appreciate power over government organizations, for example, the police, courts, region organizations, instruction and wellbeing. In the neighborhood language there are numerous terms for provincial tip top (medieval master, for example, Wadero, Sardar, Raees, Bhotar and Pir. Because of the monstrous power base of the ‘medieval’ nobody dare raise his/her voice against the proprietor inspired by a paranoid fear of being socially prohibited, monetarily disabled or confronting dread.
The current undistributed primitive power and remorseless exercise of that power by medieval masters is a central point that supports respect related violations. The nearby police headquarters is completely constrained by a neighborhood Wadero. On the off chance that a wild ox is taken from a destitute individual he won’t have the option to enroll a first information report (FIR) until the nearby wadero educates the police headquarters to do as such (Bhanbhro, Wassan, Shah, Talpur and Wassan, 2013).
Honour Murders (Jirga System):
Jirga is illicit in Pakistan, but the run the show of convention is regularly more capable than the run the show of law, The Jirga framework is one of the significant structures that keep up HMs in Sindh. The Jirga is a basic leadership get together or ancestral chamber. The Jirga is headed by a sardar [tribal chief] or a wadero [proprietor] who is unanimously concurred by both warring parties. Each party assigns two or more representatives, commonly known as advisors, to lead their case within the Jirga. The most objective of Jirga is to restore the adjust by emolument for harm and not to discover truth and rebuff the perpetrator. For illustration, in the event that a Jirga is organized to resolve the case of an HM, the assigned advisors already identify numbers of murders or other damage from each party and report these within the Jirga (Bhanbhro, Wassan, Shah, Talpur and Wassan, 2013).
The man who slaughters to reestablish the respect is ethically and legitimately backed by the Jirga and considered as a holder of respect. Whereas settling the case of respect kill by Jirga, ladies who are slaughtered or liberated are not considered casualties but the blameworthy party. The man to whom a lady (spouse, daughter or sister) belongs has got to kill to repair his respect. In Jirga he is considered the victim as he has suffered loss, to begin with to his honour and after that of the lady he has got to murder. In case of Jirga both warring parties are bound to acknowledge the decision of the Jirga. Karo-kari [HM] is not considered as a wrongdoing by the Jirga but a genuine activity of the man whose family was shamed (Bhanbhro, et All, 2013).
Causes of feudalism:
Two religious classes “Muslims & Hindu” are found in Tharparkar in which about 59.4 percent are Muslims and 40.6 percent are Hindus. In most of the areas Muslims have more influence over Hindus but in some of the areas Hindus have more influence thus creating disputes among both groups.
A man wishing to remarry may slaughter his spouse as kari (Aftab et al., 2008; Actionaid, 2012). A young lady hitched to a man exterior her braderi/clan/caste/tribe. A lady who was as often as possible standing/glimpsing from the entryway or windows of her house. A lady who was talking to a bizarre man or somebody who isn’t near relative. Appreciating any male but spouse, father or brother. Visit visits of any male from exterior the family to the house. Ladies wearing make-up without any uncommon event such as wedding or Eid (religious festival). Habitually taking shower and wearing modern cloths in nonappearance of her husband. Communicating a crave to select a life partner or wedding with a individual without family’s will (Bhanbhro, et All, 2013).
Tribal and political influence:
Tharparkar is the most neglected district of Sindh having highest inequalities as showing very poor performance in accordance with development indicators poverty rate is high, literacy rate is low, feudalism prevailing there, crime rate is low on record as feudal people take decisions for common people without any record, people are not demanding as they are illiterate. There are many tribes in Tharparkar, among all Arbabs has most social influence. These tribal and political influences cause many issues as landholding and landlessness, land registration and encroachment (Huda & Burke, 2011).
Between landlords and farmhands:
A study on Sindh (rural) shows the conflicts among farmhands and landlords as well as root causes of conflicts, tenseness and misuse in Sindh. Although feudalism is now formerly banned by government of Sindh but it is still prevailing in most of the areas of Sindh especially in Tharparkar. Feudalism is still prevalent because of remainders of the unenlightened people there as it is adopted by them in their language, living style and public dealing. Politicians, landowners, officers and local authorities have adopted antiquities. It is concluded that feudal is now a behavior that is prevailing (Huda & Burke, 2011).
Most of the time landholders create quarrel between laborers to gain benefits. As a result of this dispute among parties they brutally affect each other’s families, relatives and properties thus leading to minimal chance for improvement. As a result of loss due to these disputes now farmhands have to question some money from their landlords to solve the issue by paying fees of lawyers, bribes of police etc. landlords take some of farmhand’s property as guarantee and give them asked money so laborers are now getting more and more trouble (Huda & Burke, 2011).
Poverty and Health issues:
Poverty and inhospitable climate are the two main reasons of starvation there. Tharparkar district has poor availability of basic resources for their living. Still it is waiting for a surprise for basic needs. Many people had lost their lives due to natural disasters, poor political leadership, family pressures and lack of proper employment. Most number of deaths of infants and women during child birth. The lack of facilities are leading to malnutrition and many other dangerous diseases and increasing mortality ratio.
Additionally, most of death occurs due to starvation during famine. 650 deaths were reported in 2014. Sindh government failed to maintain basic needs of resident especially during disasters. During disaster Sindh government announced to provide 50 kg bags to 250000 family, but poor management and corruption had dishonored total system. Even large number of wheat bags filled with sand. It was troubling entire population of about 1.5 million people (THE NEWS, April 10, 2016).
UNICEF addressed nutrition intervention is basic need to control mortality rate by finding the main cause of death in children is malnutrition which is 3 percent out of 326 under 5 years. The main reason of death was found pre-term/low birth weight 26 percent, birth asphyxia 18 percent, severs pneumonia 16 percent, neonatal sepsis 13 percent, and sepsis 6 percent (UNICEF, 2016).
Effects of feudalism on health:
There are different indicators used in a survey to estimate the overall condition of Sindh as:
Early childhood deaths:
Two years (2010 and 2011) had infant mortality rate of 82 deaths per 1000 live birth and 104 deaths per 1000 live birth for below five years.
Almost 42 percent of children are underweight out of them 17 percent are labeled as severely underweight. Almost 50 percent of children under five are stunted and 24 percent out of them are severely stunted.
Almost 35 percent of the children age 12-23 months immunized with all recommended immunization by age of 12 months that is a good indicator of improvement as it was only 29 percent previously (2012).
Water and sanitation:
As per Survey of 2014 shows improvement of to improve drinking water which is 90 percent of population and it was 80 percent during 2003. Still 3 percent of households are getting arsenic contaminated water and 39 percent of households are using E-coli contaminated water.
As per 2014 survey total fertility rate was 4 percent children per woman which was 5.3 percent previously. Using any contraception now also improved to 29 percent from 25 percent. Although it is still very low rate but showing some improvement.
Maternal and newborn health:
80 percent of ever married women got an antenatal care which was only 42 percent during 2003-4 survey.
Literacy and education:
It is improved 52.3 percent of young women age 15-24. For primary school age 45.2 percent are attending school previously it was 39 percent during 2003-4.
26 percent of age 5-17 years are engaged in child labor. 81 percent of children age 1-14 years are assaulted psychologically and physically. Out of them 35 percent are severely assaulted physically.
It is 16.3 percent for young women age 15-19 years. It reflects a reduction in marriages below 15 years of age. (Huda & Burke, 2011).
By having a view of Sindh in terms of feudalism one can understand how inequalities are prevailing there as political, economic, industrial, educational and social in the form of political instabilities, poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, social inequalities. Tharparkar is one of the most backward districts far away from central line, having inhospitable climate hence experiencing disasters frequently. There is system of higher class and lower class. Higher class is getting benefits from lower class in the form of labor yet not providing them even basic needs. All politicians, officers, businessmen, corporation owners are from upper class so here they again letting down lower class, keeping them deprive of resources (Huda & Burke, 2011).
Murders within the title of respect were not exclusively driven by traditions and conventions, but moreover by a neighborhood sexual orientation framework, a primitive structure, conceptions of masculinity and the complicit part of state educate and law requirement offices. These are the components that contribute to the propagation of savagery against ladies in common and HMs in specific. The most players in frequencies of respect murders are medieval rulers and state educate, in specific the police (Bhanbhro, et All, 2013).
Strong political leadership should be established. Tribal and feudal system should be discouraged. Government should improve district’s infrastructure. Social and economic security should be provided. Job and employment opportunities should be provided. Health and Educational system should be improved. Basic needs should be available to all (Suthar, Sarki, Qureshi, Solangi, &Mangan, 2016).
Appropriate documentation of HMs is required and this is often the duty of the state government. However, at show the state is falling flat this duty. Redefinition of ‘honour killings’ as criminal murders is essential to begin to alter the mind-set. Authorization of a legitimate code is required. Instruction for ladies ought to be advanced; instruction advances the capacity of ladies to form social connections on the premise of correspondence with both other ladies and men and to achieve the vital social great of self-respect. Honour murders may be prevented by reducing the influence and interference of feudal lords on state institutions, in particular law enforcement agencies (Bhanbhro, et All, 2013).
- ul Huda, S. N., & Burke, F. (2011). Social and economic disparities, Sindh, Baluchistan and Pakistan-A comparative study. The Research Journal of Sciences and Technology, 2(1&2), 49-66.
- Bhanbhro, S., Wassan, M. R., Shah, M., Talpur, A. A., & Wassan, A. A. (2013). Karo Kari: the murder of honour in Sindh Pakistan: an ethnographic study. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 3(7), 1467-1484.
- Oberschall, A. (2010). Conflict theory. In Handbook of Politics (pp. 177-193). Springer, New York, NY.
- Suthar, V., Sarki, M. S., Qureshi, N. A., Solangi, B. K., & Mangan, T. (2016). FACTORS TRIGGERING POVERTY IN DISTRICT THARPARKAR SINDH, PAKISTAN. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Sciences, 32(2), 258-267.
- Thenews.com.pk organized by Habib University on Saturday April 10, 2016 https://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:OoE9X_1ztt0J:https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/111497-Death-by-design-malnutrition-and-health-crisis-in-Tharparkar+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=pk.
- United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 12 Aug. 2016 Report On Evaluation of Humanitarian Action-Nutrition Emergency Response In District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan ContractNo.4319141.