Greek Architecture: Stone Column’s Constructions
Any kind of technology influences architecture on how to build buildings and houses from any centuries when you search you can see kind of materials affected styles and constructions used to build. In ancient Egyptian used kind of the materials in that time, for example used a reed, mud-brick, limestone and chiselled stones, each of kind these materials influence urban ancient Egyptian because any kind of this material you must use new construction how it influences it. Stone is hard and heavy material from any centuries people used for buildings, houses, and decoration, it has effect from on any century urban, limestones not too hard to cut it, you can cut it how you want and in ancient Egyptian used for huge buildings, pyramids and for many things in that time. These are limestones different people used for buildings, houses, and for many kinds of building, each limestone influences architecture because it has different colours, when you look at any ancient urban you can find out different styles, textures, patterns, construction and colours
Stones can keep buildings and houses for long times because it is heavy and strong materials, an environment can not much influence it and the limestones you can cut it straight; any kind of shape you want, you can cut it. The limestone in ancient Egyptian used for different kind of buildings, houses, sculptures and pyramids, any of that used different construction for it.
Stone Colum’s construction, in ancient Egyptian, 5000 – 1300 BC
In ancient Egyptian built many kinds of columns by limestone and they used own style to columns for each king-built kind of column for him also on the columns you can see different kind of mono on it, in ancient Egyptian culture and religion, structure of columns very interesting how they built in that time, they used height construction for it.
Base to capital called shaft and shaft much taller than all part of the column, on this part much detail in ancient Egyptian on it and they used the mono technique to cut out on the columns, all details resend people in ancient Egyptian life in that time how people lived, traditional, kings and culture.
Between shaft to abacus called capital, that part of the column in ancient Egyptian designed Lotiform, Hathor, a Closed (bud) Style Capital, an example of Open Capital engaged, Osiride Pillars, normally identifiable by the crossed arms and an Open Papyrus Column, the capital down to top being smaller to hold Abacus strongly.
Between Capital to Architrave, called Abacus, cub stone hold Architrave and Architrave on the column to column also roof onto Architrave, very strong.
These are columns built in ancient Egyptian include different kind of in ancient Egyptian also each of these columns related to culture, religion and Kings.
These are some example columns in ancient Egyptian how used for temples.
Stone construction, in ancient Egyptian, 5000 – 1300 BC
In ancient Egyptian urban used stone for building, houses, Pyramid, Mastaba Tombs and Column, the architect Imhotep polymath designed for pyramid by highest construction to build it by stones also they used huge and heavy stones for pyramid, these images below that it shows the method how to build a pyramid and how to move a huge stone to flow them constructions to build it. Environment not much has an effect on stones because very strong material and not essay to being damaged, it can to build a pyramid by higher construction to still for long time, for example, look at ancient Egyptian buildings and temples, long time ago environment no has many effects on it because when looking at it you cannot find much difference in that time pyramid built.
These images show the systematic how they worked to build pyramids how stones move.
Second King of the 3rd Dynasty
The Third Dynasty of Egypt begins with king Djoser, Pyramid designed by the architect Imhotep polymath although he changed 5 times during construction, in that time very important how to know to design technically how to work to build Pyramid because huge stones people in that time cannot pick up huge stones and his new contradiction very good idea to build it.
- He used a standard unit of measurement, the Royal cubit = 0.524m.
- The first pyramid started as a small Mastaba 120 wide, 120 long, 15, Royal Cubits high = (63m x 63m x 7.9m).
- Divided into four and stacked on top of each other these measurements form a cubic volume of exactly 60 x 60 x 60 Royal Cubits. (1 x 1 x 1 = unity). This has similarities to the contemporary Babylonian system of mathematics which was sexagesimal (base60) numeral system.
- The number 60 is a Highly composite number, having divisors 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 15, 20, and 30, facilitating calculations with fractions. This is how we derive the modern-day usage of 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 360 (60×6) degrees in a circle.
The Great Temple of Ramses
The great temple of Ramses, rock-cut temples are in the ancient Wawa in Nubia, the measurement of the temple is about 38 meters long and 31 meters high. Front of the temple you can see four huge sculptures sit on the rock. The temple is shown to the most important gods of the New Kingdom.
The images, sides section and elevation, ancient Egyptian cut-rock into hill and cut-rock to the interior, then going to inside, you can see huge rooms and columns, on the rocks many details you can see on it, in heritage Egyptian. Front of the building you can see much details and sculptures, people in ancient Egyptian cut-rock and all details present all ideas, religion, and Egypt heritage in the time people believe it also that time very hard to cut-rocks in the hill to make rooms and columns, that idea interesting how to follow the instruction in that time how to cut rocks to make interior into hill.
The ancient Egyptian build Obelisk by huge stone and cut out many details on it, in ancient heritage Egyptian, about 30 meters high and 24 metres high square at the base, the pyramid construction used for top of the Obelisk, was carved from a single piece of stone, it was designed to be wider at its square or rectangular base than the pyramidal top. The obelisk is estimated of granite this size would easily weigh more than 1000 tons, some geologists people have suggested a figure in the region of 1100 tons.
This image one of the examples when in ancient Egyptian worked on Obelisk in that time built, some in ancient Egyptian heritages cut out on it and used the interesting construction to move and to stand Obelisk because very important to know how pick up to move for that place you want to stand it because in that time method not had much to try to help them to move easily, many people and animals used just to move it, for that place they would.
The Meydûm Pyramid
The Medium of a pyramid built for King Huni was completed by his successor King Snefru and the design of the Meydum pyramid was three-tiered stones, but it was covered with one uniform slope of masonry with a smooth and the plan of the pyramid include of three parts, ‘the chapel, the passage and the sepulchral. For this pyramid in ancient Egyptian used new construction for it, it is 57 metres long and leads to a horizontal passage connected to a vertical shaft 10 metres high that tops to the burial chamber, measures 5.9 x 2.65 m high with walls lined in white limestone tiles, the dimension of the monument are 65 metres height of ruins, 93.5 metres from base to summit and 144 metres base.
These are two images of the Meydum pyramid construction how ancient Egyptian architects designed for it and built it.
The Greek Orders of Architecture 550-400BC
Another ancient heritage technology influences architecture is the Greek Orders, in ancient Greek, used stones for buildings, houses, temples and columns. The Doric order is the earliest of the three Classical orders of architecture and the Greek Order have bronze age to represent an important moment in Mediterranean architecture when monumental construction made the tradition from impermanent materials.
In ancient Greek Order, architecture has Greek heritage and it influences the style of the temples while they used stone for the temple and the building block of western architecture, they have been used for 2500 years. About style of architecture that the ancient Greek had developed for their temples what is important to remember is that it’s just a fancy dressing basic ancient building system and brought in Stonehenge to illustrate that ancient building system called post and lintel architecture.
That is the most fundamental basic and oldest kind of architecture, the posts are the vertical elements that support a horizontal element called a lintel, we still use this basic system when we nail two by four together, but they were doing in a much more sophisticated way.
They developed decorative systems, there are three basic orders, the Doric, the Ionic and the Corinthian, are illustrated were, in this diagram first the Doric and the Ionic, and them, the last two are Corinthian these are just slight Variations of these orders.
These are three samples in ancient Greek Order architects designed for it and Ionic, a little bit more complicated.
Another sample in ancient Greek order used limestone for the temple that happens to be in Italy but nevertheless, is just a great example of the Doric in the classical and let’s start at the top, with the pediment.
The pediment isn’t, officially part of the order but since Greek temples had, at one end or other a pediment and that is triangular space at the very top of the temple and these are gabled roofs, sometimes they would be filled with sculpture, below the pediment is actually officially part of the order and that’s called the entablature and the top part of entablature is called the frieze so only this part, right here, is known as the freeze. That a column is straight up and down, that is, the sides of a column are each other and the base of a column is just wide as the area directly below the capitol but in fact, the ancient Greek did not build their temples that way.
That the ancient Greek are thinking about how to make their building beautiful and speak of the realm of the gods, when we look at an ancient Doric temple, we see that shafts small a little bit toward the centre. About a third of the way down, they would be at their widest and it would taper, ever so slightly, towered the bottom and taper much more so as for move up the top. That the narrowest point of the column shaft would be right at that top and the widest part would be about one-third of the way from the base and it would not have if the column was the same width at the top as at the bottom. Architectural historians have debated why the Greeks bothered to do this because this was expensive.
The Corinthian order
The Corinthian column used fluted element for it and that element easy to work on it any tapes of textures you want, you can work on it and in ancient Greek used that element for temples and columns, they cut-out many textures you can see in ancient Greek kind of styles they developed for example as one of the Classical Orders of architecture, the Corinthian style is more complex a than the earlier Doric and Ionic Orders, the capital or top part of a Corinthian-style column has lavish ornamentation carved to resemble leaves and flowers.
These are two samples Below, how in ancient Greek architects related to leaf to build columns by limestone and the first image, the top part of the column, they used a beautiful texture for column how to design for it.
Part of the construction they used for column very important how they worked on it, how they made the shape of the column in ancient Greek architecture, in that time elements or materials has many effects on the architect’s ideas which material to use for it because from different location has different material, it had an effect on the architects which material to use for temple or column and this image under below shows the prosses how the ancient Greek architect used construction for column and to decorated on it, they used fluted or limestone.
This image part of the ancient Greek column how they used for temples and they designed shape of the column, used beautiful construction for it also you can look at bottom of that part you can see how they cut-out shapes to join with another part of the column because they used that construction for it, much easier to move, to pick up to put on the other part of the column and part by part much easier to work on it.
The Parthenon looking at the south side of the Erechtheion at the glorious porch of the side of the maidens with its famous six caryatids, six female figures who seem to be holding up the porch and reminiscent of Kore figures from the Archaic period, they have taken the place of columns and they make explicit the relationship between the vertical column and the human body.
In Greek architecture, we have a post and lintel system vertical are posts and lintels are horizontal members that go across and the vertical elements, the columns, correspond in a way to the verticality of the human god. This is not the first time that their Greek caryatids in Greek architecture, the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi incorporated female figures but that was Archaic, have the human body and the drapery handled in the high classical manner.
Most obviously, you can see the contrapposto pose, you can see their knees pressing through their drapery, the shift in their hips, the sense of movement here but that sense of movement is balanced by a pull of vertical lines in their drapery that give them at the same time a sense of stability so we do not feel like the porch is going to fall down.
Especially since their locked legs, not their free legs but the legs where the drapery completely hides the anatomy of the leg, that is so columnar and that’s towards the outside, creating a sense of stability and confounding the human body with a column and the Acropolis, present a new woman garment to the olive wood statue of them that was housed here. Roman architect and theoretician Vitruvius suggested they represented Greek people that had sided with the enemy, the Persians, during the Persian war and had Greek captured by the Athenians.
We do know that their elegance matches its Ionic order and the decorative holdings, the coloured glass and stone that was rich, the symmetry between the east porch of the building and the half-columns on the west side, there’s asymmetry between the six caryatides on the south porch and the six columns on the north porch.
Caryatids load-bearing sculptured female figures.
Another ancient Greece architects structure influences the architecture, it is arch also in ancient Greece used arch for buildings although, after the Greek Orders of architecture between 550 to 400 BC, Classical Greek and Hellenistic Architecture between 510 to 146 BC developed arch, used for buildings and fence gate border. After those people develop the arch by different style in many centuries, particularly well known, the megalithic architecture also referred to as Cyclopean because of the use of enormous stones and represents a trend in Bronze Age architecture.
Those are some examples of how technology has more effective methods of architecture how to build buildings, houses, temples and monuments, also any instructions help the architect to design new style before no one designed.
From an ancient century before 1800Ad technological progress has always influenced the architecture of any period also such technological progress has consisted in the periodical advent of, for example, new method or processes or construction including finishing, new materials of construction-either natural or artificial and new conception, theories, calculation and design principles, as a result of the continuous research. New demands made by almost every sphere of human activity, from simple protection for residential purposes to the complex of industrial and other structures of modern times.
Technology holds architecture in its grip and every architect has, therefore, to remain abreast of all technical development in the matter of design, construction and materials. Architecture without technological progress would have stayed stagnant stereotyped and incapable of the many artifices which impart truth, beauty and goodness to structures.
Without the utilisation of the results of technological development the architectural requirements of strength, permeance, beauty, economy and efficiency could not have been secured in architectural work and other methods, technology had more effect on architecture in ancient centuries, it is materials, structures, cultures, religions, designs, natures and location.