Variation Of Leadership Styles Globally

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Diversity and Inclusion is a topic which has been of prime interest in global leadership research circles. As teams are becoming multinational, leaders ought to be sensitive to the cultural and geographical aspects of individual team members.

This report is a critical appreciation of how types of leadership/management styles differ depending on history, culture, geographic life and conditions and how they impact people performance, followers and productivity. We also critically evaluate how certain types of leadership/management styles impact on people performance and productivity and determine who will ‘follow and how’ they will follow. Using the “Seven Leadership Mindsets Theory” (vMEME), we analyse our own leadership within our organization and produce an assessment / reflection assessing our leadership capabilities.

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How leadership styles vary across the globe

In their paper on “Leadership of International and Virtual Project Teams”, Dwayne B. et al. (2014) discussed the complexities introduced into projects when operating in different locations around the globe. It was studied that global leadership styles are largely a function of cultural norms, cultural impact on multinational projects, managing virtual teams, language and time zones. Some examples are like that of the South and Central America where an agent is always required to facilitate the business; and Middle East where the business climate is very strongly biased toward the client and contractor’s advice is commonly disregarded. Virtual teams are regarded as the backbone behind globalization of businesses. But time zone and language differences make it challenging for virtual teams to maintain the same pace while on work. The challenge for the project manager is to promote harmony within the group to produce the desired results.

The 3 Ps: People, Purpose, Processes

Global variations in leadership approaches impact people performance, followers and productivity. For teams varying in culture and geographic life, managers should promote diversity and inclusion. As per their “Inclusive Global Team Model”, Marjorie D. (2016) defines the 3 Ps responsible for defining diversity and inclusion in multinational project teams: People, Purpose and Processes. Virtual teams must practice diversity and inclusion principles by being respectful of time zones, personal lives and local holidays; giving team members equal air time and minimize differences in communication styles, expressing ideas, and getting the work done.

Critical Assessment of Self Leadership Potential

In this section, I use theoretical, practical and moral frameworks to reflect on leadership by critically assessing my own leadership potential and reflect on my strengths and weaknesses affecting my ethical decision making in an organization (Northouse P.G, 1997). I test my leadership potential on the following levels:-

1. Dimensions of Cultural Quotient: It measures the cultural orientation of a society. It is based in the “Cross Cultural and Contingency Theories of Leadership”. (A. Fox, 2013).

Evaluation: My culture is less egalitarian for gender issues, more egalitarian for performance orientation, and equally egalitarian and in-group collectivism, and equally egalitarian for other issues. This means that my culture emphasizes the orientation towards performance more than other countries/ cultures.

2. Gender Implicit Quotient: This association measures gender biases that could exist between followers and leaders. This test tells our thoughts about diversity, inclusive leadership and ethical leadership.

Evaluation: I have a negative “gender bias effect” score. In fact, the magnitude of this score is low, which means that I consider males and females almost equal to each other, although slightly having a bias towards females. This is encouraging because this proves that I do not associate males or females with stereotypical roles like leader and supporter. Even in my personal life, I do not consider women to be weak or less superior to men. I believe that women are at par with men in all kinds of jobs, and in fact, women are better multitaskers, more dynamic, and more supportive. (Lowe. P, 2017)

3. Leadership Behaviour Inventory: It measures behavioral dimensions of a leader. It is based on the “Behavioral theory of Leadership”. (Allen R et al, 2017).

Evaluation: As per this theory, I will become a leader who is “more likely to lead with an emphasis on relationship than with an emphasis on task.” This indicates that I am a social, people oriented person. Work is important to me, but my preference is building on steady, healthy relations at work. I would like to increase both my Task score and Relationships score. Also, I would like to reduce the gap between my scores. For this, I need to interact more with my colleagues during work.

4. Leadership Trait Quotient: It ranks a range of traits possessed by effective leaders. It is based on the “Trait Theory of Leadership”.

Evaluation: The theory reflects that I have quite a few traits of becoming a successful leader. It also reveals some of my weak and strong areas. This score suggests that I am hardworking and honest. If I have command over the project requirements and clarity of goals, there is nothing which can push me back. I, however, need to be more innovative and creative in my outlook.

5. Leader-Member Exchange: It measures interactions between leaders and followers. It is based on the “Leader-Member Exchange Theory”.

Evaluation: This theory indicates I have moderate quality “leader-member exchanges” This may be because my leader is a busy professional, and is not able to interact with me or provide feedback due to his work commitments. The only way to improve this scenario is to convey these problems to my leader and find a mutually acceptable solution. (C Mabey et al, 2008)


This report studies the various factors responsible for the differences in leadership styles of managers across the globe. Diversity and inclusion principles with an emphasis on the 3Ps can be helpful for managers leading virtual and multinational teams.

Critical evaluation of my leadership potential suggests if I have command over the project requirements and clarity of goals, there is nothing which can push me back. I, however, need to be more innovative and creative in my outlook.


  1. Dwayne Barnwell, Shea Nedrick, Elizabeth Rudolph, Mohamed Sesay, William Wellen, (2014) “Leadership of International and Virtual Project Teams”, College of Engineering, Drexel University, USA.
  2. Marjorie Derven (2016), “Diversity & Inclusion are essential to a global virtual team’s success”, Association for Talent Development,
  3. Peter Guy Northouse, ‘Leadership: Theory and Practice’, SAGE Publications. 1997.
  4. Fox, A. (2013) ‘Help managers shine’, HR Magazine, 58 (2), pp. 42-48
  5. Lowe, P 2017, “The labour market and monetary policy”, address to the Anika Foundation Luncheon, Sydney,7 June 2018.
  6. Allen, R, Teodoro, N & Manley, C 2017, “Future skills and training: a practical resource to help identify future skills and training”, Australian Industry Skills Committee, viewed 26 March 2018.
  7. C. Mabey and T. Finch-Lees (2008) ‘Leadership and Management Development’, London: Sage and ‘Why managers won’t learn. Management Education and Development’, 21(3): 183-91.


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