International Sympathies For Indian National Movement
The new renaissance spirit of scientific enquiry scepticism, humanism and aggressive materialism which was rapidly transformed by Europeans. Pandit Nehru said about it Government had stood in the past in the theory at least, for Indian unity and democracy. It took pride in the fact that its rule had brought about the political unity of India.
Mrs. Annie Besent, Allan Hume, Morle Minto, Chelmsford, Christian missionaries played an important role in the political awareness and Indian National Movement. Even after world war first Lala Hardayal from Punjab and other Indians abroad with Ghadar Party moved in Germany, Japan, Burma, Malaya, Thailand, Indio-China, Bornio, Java, Sumatra, Hongkong, supported in the Indian liberation movement. A strong influence was exerted by the ideas and the work of the Christian Missionaries.
With the brief discussion, I would like to focus on how International level sympathies became responsible in the motivation of the Indian National Movement.
Supportive Role of Lional Curtis—- Lionel Curties and his friends started The Round Table Group after 1906, it played a very significant part in bringing the various elements in the union together. Encouraged by its results, the members extended their study in various countries of the world. By discussion and criticism, the group contributed to the study of the means by which the various parts of Empire could be brought together and the problems arising out of this huge combination of the states could be tacked satisfactorily. In 1915 the members faced with the problem of writing the chapters relating to India and Dependencies. Curties advised his friends to visit the country for the purpose of hearing what Indians. He left for India via Canada and Australia and reached Bombay towards the end of October 1916. After his study, he emphasised the fact that his mission was purely academic and he declared that it was the duty of to do
everything in their power to enable Indians to govern themselves as soon as possible and also share in the Government of Commonwealth as a whole. Representation from the Indian states was also invited to participate from 1930 onwards.
Role of Allan O. Hume in the establishment of Indian National Congress—Mr. Allan a retired Civil Servant or official of the Government of India, gave a particle and definite shape to an organisation of an all-India character. Regarding the foundation of organisation W.C. Bannerjee popularised the view that the idea of the Indian National Movement was a product of Lord Dufferin’s brain, he suggested it to Mr. Hume who work it out. ( anyhow both were gentlemen)Mr. Hume was true, liberal, and “deadly earnest” about the necessity and desirability of a political organisation.
Hume,s open letter to the graduates of Calcutta University, wrote, ‘Scattered individuals however capable and however well-meaning, are powerless singly. What is needed is union, orgnisation and well-defined life of action and to secure these an association is required” Hume collected fifty volunteers to join in a movement to promote the mental, moral Social and political regeneration of the people of India.
Mr. Hume secured the sympathy and support of Government officials and public men in India and England for the Indian National Congress. In 1885 met the first Indian National Congress at Bombay under the presidency of Shri Womesh Chandra Bannerjee .seventy three Indian delegates met in Bombay. They were mostly members of the upwardly mobile and successful western-educated provincial elites, engaged in professions such as law, teaching, and journalism.
The Indian National Congress became the chief organization representing the will of the common people and led the Indians in their struggle for freedom.
Role of Irish Lady Annie Besant—Annie Besant Founded Home Rule League in September 1916. She took up the cause of Home Rule for Indians very passionately. In 1914-15 through her papers Common Weal and New India, she tried to rouse nationalist feelings. her followers distributed 300000 copies of 26 pamphlets in English. Its carried propaganda over the whole country. Following that of Tilak electrified the political atmosphere of the whole country. Appreciating her contribution to the cause of Indian nationalism, Mahatma Gandhi later observed:
“As long as India lives, the memory6 of the magnificent services rendered by her will also live. She endeared herself to India by making it her country of adoption and dedicating her all to it.”
Annie Besent and Bal Gangadhar Tilak started a parallel Home Rule Movement demanding self-government for India. Annie played an active role in the Indian National Congress of which she was elected president in 1917.
Mr. Montagu Chemford’s Role in Indian National Movement—In 1916 the Government of India sent their Dispatch to Chamberlain, Secretary of state for India asking for concession for Indians.
Mr. Montagu was a great friend of India. He had sympathised with the aspirations of the people of India .he made the following declaration in August 1917: “The policy of His Majesty’s government with which the Government of India is in complete accord is the increasing association of Indians of responsible Government in India as an integral part of Empire. They have decided that substantial steps in this direction should be taken as soon as possible and that it is of the highest importance as a preliminary to considering what these steps should be that there should be a free and informal exchange of opinion between those in authority at home and in India.
The joint report of Montagu and Chemsford analyed the meaning of the word” Responsible Government” suggested initial steps for the development of responsible Government should be taken in the provinces. It was suggested that Local Self-Government, Education, Health and sanitation, agriculture, public works and Excise might be transferred to the ministers. The number of the non-official members was to be increased and direct elections were to be ordered wherever possible. He referred to three difficulties, lack of education, caste system, and religious differences which stood in the way of the establishment of responsible government in India. He also said that the mere maintenance of law and order and peace and tranquility was meaningless unless something substantial was conceded to the Indians
Indian terrorists outside India—Some of our Indian aggressive nationalists established their centers of the national movement in international countries to win their sympathies. Shyamji Krishnavarma established the Indian Home Rule Society in London in 1905, He also opened centre for Indian students in London called India House, V. D. Savarkar became in charge of India House, he got the support of Irish revolutionaries. One Parsi Lady Madame Cama established terroristic activities in Paris and Geneva and won the sympathy of French socialists. She hoisted the flag of independent India. Lala Hardayal estd Ghadar party in San Francisco, USA in 1913. The Ghadr Party earned the sympathpy of some eminent Americans, including U.S. President Wilson. The party established an analogy between the American War of Independence and the Indian National Movement. Virendra Nath Chattopadhyaya, Bhupen Dutt, Hardayal, etc. Tried to bring about an armed rebellion in Indian with the help of Germany and Turkey. They estd the Indian Independence Committee in Berlin and made plans to carry on anti- propaganda . They also estd a provisional government of free India in Kabul with the support of Amanullah, the crown prince of Afghanistan.
Theosophical Society founded by Madame Blavatsky and col. Olcott in 1875 in the USA. The founder established their headquarters at Adyar in Madras in 1886. The Society owed its real success to Dr Annie Besent who joined it in 1889. The activities of the society spread throughout the world. After Dr Annie joined the society she gave a new leadership it, She participated in the Political Development of India taking a clue from the Irish Home Rule Movement. Due to her able guidance the theosophical society could establish its branches all over the world.
During the course of hostilities following the outbreak of the First World War, efforts were made by Indians to win German military support and also to tamper with the loyalty of Indian soldiers fighting for England on the various war front.
The English inspire so much respect in the natives by their power, strength, wealth and morality. They esteem themselves too highly. The contribution of rule in India had negative and positive points. But it was a very difficult task to get freedom unless India would not have support on an International level. Indian Prominent leaders had struggled with full unity and strength but it was the idea of Allan Hume, he brought all Indians under one flag. Irish Lady Annie Besent gave the concept of the Home Rule Movement by which Lokmanya Tilka “Swaraj” Movement in India. Round Table Conference gave ample scope to discuss and criticise the Indian Dependancy issue on the world level. Indian National Movement or India’s freedom struggle and democratic decentralization was a collective activity of Indian as well as many more international personalities and supportive countries.
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