Problem of Xenophobia with Ethnic Minority of Mexicans: Argument Essay
I am concerned about such a problem as the problem of xenophobia, which today is on the same level as racism, but in the first case, much more different aspects are touched. Especially it related to ethnic minority of Mexicans. Psychologists are convinced that this phenomenon must be fought, since tolerance is the key to the peaceful existence of people. I think that we can attract even more people to solve this problem. Preventive measures will be all the more effective, the more areas of public life they will cover. It is relevant that young people are at risk in the aspect of interethnic relations insofar as in this age group there is a desire for self-assertion (including due to representatives of ‘other’ groups), close interpersonal contacts, the most important stage of human socialization occurs, in which it is important have an example of a group (imitation) and gaining life experience. The solution to the problem of ethnic tolerance lies not only in the education of the younger generation and youth. The eradication of the objective conditions for the emergence of ethnic intolerance is much more significant: it consists primarily in the need to create a system of adaptation and integration of migrant communities in American society.
First of all, xenophobia regarded as subjective, stereotypical, prejudice against members of certain races and ethnicities. In addition, due to the concentration of the Mexican population mainly in the south-western states of the country, the Mexican immigrants perceive extremely slow processes of adaptation and integration into American society. The economic potential is determined by the Mexican-income from employment. Major changes in the position they are, firstly, a much sharper than before, polarization property, and secondly, in the almost complete disappearance relationship between work and income. “As a result of this racial perception, Mexican Americans not only have encountered substantial discrimination but also, ‘by all measures of income, occupational distribution, and housing are America’s second largest disadvantaged minority” (Greenfield 721).
The consequence of the polarization property are inevitable social and political confrontation in the country, the growth of social tension (Guerin-Gonzales 4). If this trend continues, it could lead to a profound social upheaval. Ethnic discrimination in employment on the one hand, protects the incomes and welfare of Americans support them in competition, it helps to preserve their own culture (conservative function). On the other hand, it is an exit channel aggression, dissatisfaction with the status quo, the prosecution of Mexicans in their troubles and justification of unfair treatment on their part in relation to them (Gee et al.). Formal institutions to overcome ethnic discrimination in employment, are often ineffective because of the imperfection of the legislation, the weakness of the judicial system, distrust discriminated against it (Kubota).
Because of this, income inequality, important in itself, becomes the expression of many other social inequalities of gender, age, urban, settlement, industry, trade, management and so on. In turn, the level of income a significant impact on those aspects of social status, a type of consumption and lifestyle, the ability to do business, to establish useful social connections, a promotion, give children a good education. Mexicans in the United States form a unique socio-ethnic population of the reservoir. As an ethnic minority of Mexicans stands out among the other social, cultural figures and growth rates. Property inequality generates economic differentiation, inequality in the possession of the authorities shows the political differentiation, division by occupation, differing levels of prestige, suggests that the professional differentiation (Mize 202). Empirically, this strata can be identified on the basis of characteristics such as a very low personal and family income, low education, unskilled labor or lack of regular employment. Average incomes of Mexican immigrants are much lower income of the indigenous population, as well as migrants from other countries. Almost 30% of legal Mexican immigrants living below the poverty line. Thus, Mexican immigrants, 50% of whom are forced to use state benefits and entitlements, increase the share of financial sustainability of families, thus proving to cause additional government spending at the federal and regional levels. It affect the social climate in the individual states, increasing dissatisfaction with the indigenous population increase in the number of migrants from Mexico.
Clubs protect the rights of Mexican citizens, support the creation of jobs for workers, provides scholarships to students wishing to continue their studies at the university, provide material support to young people, help in the implementation of social, civil, cultural and sports programs, development of leadership skills of young people. These organizations are involved in the implementation of the development of culture, education and the Mexican identity, as well as the campaign for the prevention of crime in Latin America. Organizations should create a network of interactions not only among themselves but also at the government level, establishing communication between the federal and state governments, facilitate the dissemination of political culture among migrants and the development of academic relations between Mexico and the United States, primarily in the framework of educational programs development.
The increasing activity of the diaspora contributes to the work of the Mexican consulates in the United States adjustments aimed at improving the situation of immigrants from Mexico. To be effective, to enact legislation to combat discrimination need effective law enforcement, and monitoring and assisting institutions. Currently, the American political initiatives to prevent illegal immigration from Mexico can be divided into two types. On the one hand, the prevailing view of the need to strengthen the control measures. On the other hand, politicians are wondering how they can solve the problem of the economic backwardness of the southern regions of the north. It is believed that measures to reduce the number of migrants should not be one-sided nature of the financial assistance to Mexico, but should include a whole range of policy measures to improve the political and economic stability in the country.
Thus, the American experience of monitoring the number of Mexican immigration has shown that it is not enough to only one individual legalization of residence in the United States. The question of the near future for the United States implies the development of maximum incorporation into US society for targeted programs for migrants.
Thus, the prevention of xenophobia should occur in the following areas: social with the help of methods that improve the psychological microclimate in the region, as well as support for the vulnerable layer of the population; economic while raising living standards; political when conducting an effective socio-economic policy to improve the situation and monitor the situation regarding interethnic relations in the region; educational through the use of programs to instill in youth norms of behavior and worldviews, excluding xenophobia, but forming a respectful attitude to representatives of other nationalities and cultures; informational through active propaganda of the ideals of humanism and tolerance, as well as counteraction to the spread of extremist publications; cultural – the reduction of xenophobia contributes to the regular conduct of events to familiarize with the cultures of different nations, national holidays, etc. Thus, the phenomenon of xenophobia can be minimized in the modern world, but this requires the active support of the authorities, as well as the correct influence of the older generation on the views of young people.
Discrimination on ethnic grounds is actually reinforces intolerance. However, examples of such successful search term policy difficult. Ethnic discrimination is mixed with the race, when negative stereotypes are not confined to a particular country, but on the entire regions of the historical formation of races and racial subgroups. This involves the connection between the most significant anthropological traits genetically transmitted, and the peculiarities of culture. The assimilation strategy largely relies on the principles of tolerance, as often involve the union of cultures of different ethnic communities. Multiculturalism is unthinkable without the maintenance of tolerance. Thus, tolerance becomes the conceptual basis of integration of Mexicans in the United States. It is also an important role to play Mexican, Mexican-American and Hispanic organizations, whose number is constantly increasing, and the size of the enlarged. Sphere of interests that defend these organizations, and the range of their activities is very broad: from the organization of social and sports activities, raise funds to help compatriots who find themselves in difficult circumstances, to the dissemination of information on all issues in Mexico and the United States.
- Greenfield, Gary A., and Don B. Kates Jr. ‘Mexican Americans, Racial Discrimination, and the Civil Rights Act of 1866.’ California Law Review (1975): 662-731.
- Gee, Gilbert C., et al. ‘Self-reported discrimination and mental health status among African descendants, Mexican Americans, and other Latinos in the New Hampshire REACH 2010 Initiative: the added dimension of immigration.’ American Journal of Public Health 96.10 (2006): 1821-1828.
- Guerin-Gonzales, Camille. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration, Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. Rutgers University Press, 1994.
- Kubota, Ryuko. ‘Neoliberal paradoxes of language learning: Xenophobia and international communication.’ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 37.5 (2016): 467-480.
- Mize, Ronald L., and Alicia CS Swords. Consuming Mexican labor: From the Bracero program to NAFTA. University of Toronto Press, 2010.