Marxism: Phases Of Class Struggle
Karl Marx believed that capitalism is dangerous to society. Capitalism exploits the working class. The era he lived in was the industrial revolution era, it was the transition to new manufacturing process from the old one. He foresaw that capitalism will only lead to great disparity between the rich and the poor. People will no longer enjoy doing what they love but instead work to earn wages for living. The elite few who are in control of the resources will exploit the working class in order to enrich themselves unjustly. This, according to Marxism, contradicts human nature. For example, according to the capitalist society resting is something that is bad, society needs to work and compete to earn a living. This is the nature of capitalism, a market free from state regulations to allow for competition in society.
Marx also wrote that capitalism will encroach from economic system into the political system. This is where the jurisprudential approach of Marxism comes in, the law has been abused to give privilege to the conglomerate whom he referred to as the “bourgeoisies” and is used to control the working class, the “proletariat”. In our Employment Act, the hours of work under a contract of service are clearly stipulated under the law, meaning the law has been used to compel people working for certain hour to satisfy the expectation of capitalist society. Another example is the quota given for annual leave. Employees are prohibited to take leave as he pleases under the pain of wages deduction and disciplinary action. The true goals of these laws are to ensure the ruling class benefits are guaranteed. This was what foresaw by Marx as dangerous to our society.
Capitalism controls the systems in our world. We do not realise that we are being used by the bourgeoisies through the systems. For instance, we desire to excel in our studies or work, but our success is only to meet one goal that is to stand out from others in order to obtain a scholarship for tertiary education or promotion at work. At its core, we are in competition with our fellow men in an economic market. The reality is that we are the one competing, but it is the ruling class who benefit the most from our work. We do not get the equal shares in the distribution of wealth which we worked hard for. This can be seen in our Company law, where the profit of the company is distributed as dividends to the shareholders. The profit resulted from the hard work of the employers but they did not enjoy the profit equally, while the shareholder who in their capacity as the contributory of the company and does not work for the company are enriched more than the employees.
The development of historical materialism in the following shows various phases of class struggle.
1. Primitive stage or primitive communalism
The life of humanity in a time in which there was no technology and the only purpose was prosperity and survival. However, the world was then characterized by egotism and fear as one person eventually created a tool and weapon (unprecedented creations) to be used to help gather resources. Inequality came from a single individual who had one additional tool for employment, which gave him more wealth and the separation of society. When distribution was unequal, the world was fragmented and divided into groups based on the division of capital and labour.
2. Slave mode of production (ownership of people)
The individual who accumulated more wealth in the first stage brought about a division of society and thus produced a stronger class. People were chattels for entertainment or slavery. Eventually the tribal society would be replaced by the government, which had become the instrument of the more powerful class. Those of the weaker class society were becoming slaves. The poorer class in society triggered this class struggle.
3. Capitalist mode of production
Law to administer property were now introduced and workers now had the right to have owned property. Capitalists also started to own their own production methods. The end product would be marketed by the capitalists who would pay to the workers and keep their income. Workers would get far less return (low salary) than they put in. The ruling class (bourgeoisie) and the working class (proletariats) eventually went into class struggle. The ruling class continued to use the law to control and oppress the working class
4. Revolution (socialist mode of production; proletarian dictatorship)
The conflict suffered by the capitalist mode of production would finally break up and cause the majority to revolt against the minority and the majority would seek control of economic resources and the exclusion of the minority. This is triggered by a proletariat revolution in which the bourgeoisie was overthrown and governed. The proletariat’s dictatorship is said to be the highest possible kind of democracy in a class society. At this point the distribution of goods (resources, wealth) follows the maxim: “From each according to his ability, to each according to his work”
5. Communist mode of production
The conflict in the proletarian dictatorship will eventually bring communism or a classless society into existence. Domination stops, and inequalities disappear. Production has come to a point where everyone can live up to his / her needs without being forced into work. The state and the law will go away because their presence is not required. Since law is described as the battle of class between the ruling class and the working class, the absence of a fight by the class will decrease the need to achieve law. Controversy would be resolved by evolving public communist morality. The individual is equal and free by nature, and can only realize his true self in communist society.
In our situation, once revolution takes place, a new group (here is Bolsherots) will seizes state power of Jakku and replaces the government. Everything the people of Jakku make will be state-owned. Rank abuse will no longer take place. The government will really represent society in its entirety. The state run by Bolsherots shall take over all methods and means of production. It is the government that owns it. When the state controls the means and process of development, it is unreasonable for states to intervene in human social relations. It is going to wither away over time. If the government stops working, it dies. In the interests of society, it does everything. The state of individuals will be superseded by another agency, which will lead the production process. They must direct what to produce, how much to produce and who is to produce. This is the level of Communism when Jakku reach this stage. Bolsherots have a great vision of socialism when you meet it. There will be injustice somewhere, Marx states. This degree is the ultimate goal of communism. Jakku shall be limited and the state has become this huge thing that governs everything. The state of the bourgeoisie is overthrown.
Hence, to achieve communism there are 3 stages that Bolsherots must assist Jakku in its transformation;
- Establish a proletarian dictatorship, necessary to turn capitalist modes of production into the proletariat mode of production
- All private property shall be nationalised. Nobody controls private property any more.
- Socialism is responsible for the production and distribution of goods, as property is of common ownership and society at large (communism),
Then only, Jakku will become a true Communist state.
Next, discussion on the materialist conception of history. Marx point of theory of history is that he believed that theory is valuable precisely as it could help us, the new generation to change the world. Marxism is against theory as a mean to satisfy curiosity, he believe that theory must lead to a change to the system. Marx discovered the law of improvement of mankind’s history: the straightforward reality, until now disguised by an excess of philosophy, that humankind should above all else eat, drink, have haven and attire, before it can seek after legislative issues, science, craftsmanship, religion, and so on.; that in this way the creation of the quick material methods for subsistence and thus the level of monetary advancement accomplished by a given people or during a given age structure the establishment whereupon the state organizations, the lawful originations, workmanship, and even the thoughts on religion, of the individuals concerned have been developed, and in the light of which they should, subsequently, be clarified, rather than the other way around, as had heretofore been the situation.
On facts given, due to the current recession, the people are thirsty of knowledge and has a desire to understand on what currently happens in their state. This shows that the people have no longer seek theory for the sake of the theory itself but they are aiming for a change in their country, as can be seen in the question they attempted to change society resulted from the failure of capitalism in the state of Jakku. The historical attachment of ideology had cover the eyes of the people as to what the society needs. The people of the state of Jakku no longer need to be convinced as they had finally come into realisation and experience it on their own. Hence, when the eyes of the people are widely opened as to what the reality is, they no longer believe in capitalism and can temporarily shift to socialism before shifting to communism.