Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

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This paper will discuss Multiple Sclerosis along with the factors, signs and symptoms, how the disease impacts the body, treatments, and the cost. Five reputable sources were used to support and gather the information in this paper. M.S. has many different impacts on the body all depending on the kind of M.S. you have.

Keywords: M.S., factors, signs and symptoms, impacts, treatments, cost

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Multiple Sclerosis Research Paper

Multiple Sclerosis is a very complicated and hard disease to deal with because you never actually know when a relapse or symptoms will occur. MS has effected 2 people in my life my great-grandma and my grandfather. Their types of MS were completely different from each other. My great grandma was almost all the way paralyzed on her right side of her body. My grandfather says his is just in his right leg all the time and he takes Tecfidera. MS has various types of causes, symptoms, and how it impacts the body.


Medical Scientists have studied M.S. for years but are still unsure as to what can cause it. After years of study Scientists have a slight theory that MS is triggered by a combination of factors. The factors that contribute to M.S. are Immunologic, Environmental, Infectious, and Genetic. According to, “Scientists do not know exactly what causes MS, but they believe it is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system (CNS). When a person has an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks healthy tissue, just as it might attack a virus or bacteria.” Multiple Sclerosis is a very complex disease that scientist still don’t know the actual cause to. Many theories are that it’s a viral infection of the central nervous system, a combination of different factors, or an autoimmune disease. Who knows how long it will be until we find the actual cause of Multiple Sclerosis.

Signs and Symptoms

Multiple Sclerosis effects the Central Nervous System (CNS) therefor these symptoms can attack any part of your body at any time. Multiple Sclerosis is very taxing on the body and min and can effect any part of your body in many different ways depending on what type of M.S. and how long you have had it. Multiple Sclerosis occurs more in the legs than any other part of the body effecting the way you walk which can sometimes often lead to paralyzing of the legs or leg. According to, “the main symptoms of M.S. are muscle weakness, numbness and tingling, Lhermitte’s sign, bladder/bowel problems, fatigue/muscle weakness, dizziness and vertigo, muscle spasms, memory/learning problems, and emotional changes/ depression.” These symptoms can be controlled with the many different types of medications that suppress these symptoms.


Multiple Sclerosis is more common in adults from 20-40 years old. It can happen in children but it is very rare. The first M.S. attack is known as Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS). The first episode of this attack can last up to 24 hours and is very harsh to deal with. There are 4 different types of Multiple Sclerosis and they are named by how often they attack and how it progresses throughout your life. Theses 4 types of Multiple Sclerosis are Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), Secondary-progressive MS (SPMS), Primary-progressive MS (PPMS), and the last one and the worse one you can have is Progressive-relapsing MS (PRMS). According to, “RRMS is the most common form of MS, where flare-ups or relapses occur and may for days or months, but afterwards there is complete or near-complete recovery. Incomplete recovery with no progression of disease is still considered to be this pattern of MS. SPMS: Relapses and partial recoveries may occur with this type of MS, but neurologic function gets progressively worse with time. Many people with RRMS eventually develop this form of the disease. The disease steadily progresses with each attack. Primary Progressive MS affects about 15 percent of people with MS. Isolated attacks rarely occur with this form of MS; rather, right from the onset, the disease progresses steadily, with no remission. PRMS: With this rare type of MS, symptoms worsen steadily, but patients also experience flare-ups.” With my Grandfather having this disease I have seen first hand just how bad these flare-ups can be. He was first diagnosed with RRMS around the age of 70 and he is now 75 years old with PPMS. This just goes to show how fast this disease can progress.


Multiple Sclerosis has been studied by medical scientists for years and they have yet to come up with a cure. They do have medications that can help with attacks, slow progression, and the pain involved with having this disease. Physical therapy may also be prescribed to a patient with this disease depending on how bad your disease is and where it effects you. There are many different types of medications such as oral medication, injectable medications, and infused medications. Infused medications are medications that are put into your body through a vein. This is the same way saline is put into the body. According to, “ Injectable medications are interferon beta 1-a (Avonex and Rebif), interferon beta-1b (Betasron and Extavia), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone and Glatopa), and peginterferon beta-1a (Plegridy). Oral medications are Teriflunomide (Aubagio), Fingolimod (Gilenya), Dimethyl Fumarate (Tecfidera), Mavenclad (Cladribine), and Mayzent (Siponimod). Infused medications are Alemtuzumab (Lemrada), Mitoxantrone (Novantrone), Ocrelizumab (Ocrevus), and Natalizumab (Tysabri).” There are many side effects that come with taking medications and there’s always a risk that these medications will not help with many of these symptoms and progression.


The costs of the crucial medications for this disease is the 2nd highest chronic disease in medical costs. Many people who are on this medication have their own health insurance and the also might be on Medicaid or another government program. According to, “ A study published in May 2013 in the Journal of Medical Economics found that the total cost of healthcare for MS ranged from about $8,500 to more than $50,000 per year during the period studied (1999 to 2008), with prescription drugs accounting for a large percentage of those costs. But even with insurance, high deductibles and co-payments can make paying for healthcare difficult for many individuals with MS, particularly since many people are unable to work because of their disease.” Medications for this disease cost a lot of money more depending on what kind they prescribe to you or maybe even less. Getting on these government programs to help with payments may be harder for some people to get on.


With any disease a prognosis by a doctor can be wrong. MS patients can have severe complications with their disease at any times causing possible death. According to, “Average life span of 25 to 35 years after the diagnosis of MS is made are often stated. Some of the most common causes of death is MS patients are secondary complications resulting from immobility, chronic urinary tract infections, and compromised swallowing and breathing.”


In conclusion Multiple Sclerosis is a very taxing on the body and mind. It has a vast variety of treatments, symptoms, and impacts. It is a very complicated disease that many scientist don’t quite fully understand of what causes it. I’ve had first hand experience of how this disease impacts people depending on what kind they have.


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  3. McQuillan, S. (2019, March 18). The Multiple Types of Multiple Sclerosis. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from Sharecare website:
  4. Types of MS. (2013). Types of MS. Retrieved from National Multiple Sclerosis Society website:
  5. Brazier, Y. (2019, May 29). Multiple sclerosis: What you need to know. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from Medical News Today website:
  6. Woods, A. (2016, March 8). The Costs of Multiple Sclerosis Treatment. Retrieved November 10, 2019, from website:
  7. MS Symptoms. (2015). MS Symptoms. Retrieved from National Multiple Sclerosis Society website:


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