The Difference Between Amnesia, Dementia And Dyspraxia

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Amnesia– It is the inability to recall information particular to life events rather than learned skills, where memory loss is generally partial, although complete memory loss takes place in some amnesiac individuals, it is infrequent (State Government of Victoria, Australia, 2014). Followed by a traumatic brain injury, whether the trauma is physical or psychological, amnesia can occur temporarily (caused by head injury), permanently (caused by infections) or progressively (caused by neurodegeneration). Amnesia primarily is of two types : retrograde, where events prior to trauma cannot be recalled and anterograde, where events following the trauma cannot be recalled. Transient Global Amnesia, Infantile Amnesia and Dissociative Amnesia are other types of amnesia apart from RA and ARA. Factors leading to amnesia which are either psychological or biological as stroke, hypoxia, coeliac disease, encephalitis, brain tumours, violent crimes or sexual, should be treated by professionals by a thorough examination followed by CT,MRI scans and EEG, where treatment to restore memories can be done using therapeutic techniques, counselling and medical intervention (Cleveland Clinic medical professional, 2020). Though some may have positive results by intervention, it is not possible to reverse memory that is affected especially in amnesia caused by neurodegenerative diseases. Amnesia can be a symptom of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease, Dementia or Korsakoff’s syndrome.Dyspraxia – Dyspraxia is also known as ‘developmental co-ordination disorder’. It is the partial loss of movement control affecting, perception, language and thoughts. People with dyspraxia may have trouble in movement, balance, writing, fine motor skill, gross motor skills, multi -tasking or remembering information (Henderson, 2015). Immaturity of neurones during its development or as a result of damage to the brain could be the cause to develop dyspraxia, whereas risk factors includes low birth weight, premature birth, using alcohol/drugs during pregnancy and family members who shows symptoms similar as dyspraxia (gene factor for hereditary symptoms) as research suggests (Barr, 2019). Motor Dyspraxia and Verbal Dyspraxia are two main types of dyspraxia, where some children and adults may have combination of symptoms from both types. As it is categorised under ‘specific learning difficulties’, it is common to have ‘co-occurring’ learning difficulties along with dyspraxia. Symptoms may vary according to the individual; therefore, the treatment should also be assessed individually. Professionals in health sector such as, occupational therapists, paediatricians and psychologists provide necessary assistance to children and adults with dyspraxia to manage life accordingly and provide awareness to family members (incluzy, 2018). Children with dyspraxia were generally labelled and stigmatised as ‘clumsy’ since confusion, forgetfulness, clumsiness, concentration and inability to multitask occur, which results in children academic performance and work performance in adult life. For children whose handwriting is unclear, typing is an alternative suggestion as it can improve computer skills and self-esteem (Independent School Parent).Dementia – A set of conditions widely overlooked in its early stage as onset of it is gradual. Dementia; which generally affects ageing population worldwide, although age is not a cause for its development, is progressive and symptoms could arise in different stages from mild, moderate to severe form. Neurodegenerative diseases can cause dementia such as Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s, where factors like infections, stroke, depression, smoking, drug abuse etc can cause damage to the brain which could lead to dementia later in life as well as in younger population (Healthline Editorial Team, 2020). Dementia affects cognitive skills causing a decline in memory, disorientation, mood changes, personality changes affecting a person’s quality of life as well as his/her family. Most common types of dementia include vascular, frontotemporal, Lewy body and mixed dementia are progressive and cannot be reversed while dementias caused by infections, vitamin deficiencies, endocrine problems can be treated or reversed to an extent (MacGill, 2018). Caring for dementia patients is challenging, since affected individuals are confused and are unable to recognise familiar faces, neglect one’s self, unable to carry out daily tasks ,not react well to differences in the environment in general and repeat questions or statements due to short term memory lapses (White PhD, .Segal Ph.D, Robinson, & Smith M.A., 2020). Prevention or delaying symptoms of dementia could be done by following a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise, a balanced diet, managing stress, strengthening cognitive skills, monitoring cholesterol and blood pressure, and avoiding smoking (Danette C. Taylor)

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