School Uniform: Review Of Related Literature
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of uniform on student’s behavior at university level. That uniform has positive impact in improving student’s behavioral problems, improving university climate and motivates learning of students.
Many school teachers share the opinion that, by wearing a school uniform, students gain skills in presentation which ultimately lead to developed discipline in the classroom. Uniforms can also increases attendance rates, and prevent students from forming gangs and groups that might end in further bad behaviour (Stephanie 2016).
Reaching whole inclusivity in schools is approximately every school leader hopes to attain, and one of the simplest ways to do this, according to some educational experts, is to adopt a school uniform. School wear generates a tangible sense of identity and belonging among students, and subsequently helps to create a safe environment both in and out of the classroom (Stephanie 2016).
Education is not the only aspect in play when debating the positive effects school uniforms can have on pupils. Although the excellence of a student’s education is very important, their security is more so. After gang conflicts in Long Beach, California that school representatives began to identify the importance school uniforms could have. The only way officers could identify students as the children who needed assistance if future instances were to occur were through uniforms.
Ones institutes’ uniform style is always slightly different from one another. But the main purposes for such uniform variation are to keep students from dressing improperly and provide a standard for every student to meet.
Growing up in a stylish world can put an unbelievable amount of stress on young boys and girls of the 21st century. Having dresses that are considered “in” is not the easiest thing in the world, particularly during hard financial times. Young children tend to associate with children most like themselves, and lower class students are vulnerable to being left out of groups of friends and intimidation in schools. The clothes children wear, however, can misrepresent the person they truly are behind the stylish jeans and brand-name jersey. Struggle for popular clothing items among classmates and the differences between aristocracy and proletariat students by the clothes they wear are diminished with the implementation of uniforms in the institutes.
Uniforms promote single standard of dress. Therefore, university environments become less competitive and more focused on learning. Similarly, research has shown there is a link between a student’s appearance and teacher’s expectations, High expectations means high achievements (Asma, 2018).
Helping to build a sense of community within the university, uniform create an atmosphere of belonging. This essence of unity can positively affect a child’s attitude toward university and can lead to better learning and improve attendance (Asma, 2018).
University uniforms promote a safe, healthy learning environment. Education professional agree that a safe environment is essential for learning to take place. The safer the environment, the more likely children will attend. Uniforms make it easier for university officials to identify non-students while promoting a safe and comfortable atmosphere (Asma, 2018).Uniforms are less expensive than other types of clothing. A student can easily be outfitted with easy-car, long-lasting (Asma, 2018)
Wearing uniform improves student actions both inside and outside university. A study suggests having a uniform help to reduce intimidation in university makes students better behaved outside the university gates and even helps concentration in class researchers said. Students at university without uniform codes were likely to be bullied. For the way they dressed the study found. Youngsters who took part in the oxford brooks university survey said dress codes acted as asocial level and reduced the risk of student being picked on for wearing ‘peculiar clothes. Teenager also confessed they were less probable to misbehave outside the premises because of their university (Laura 2007).
Students were more aware of their behavior in public and conscious that “old ladies will ring up and report it if you have dropped and apple core in the street. Others noticed that safety guards were more likely to follow student around shops if they were wearing their professor Margaret Harris who led the study said uniform after directly contributed to a feeling of university conceit which they did not want to compromise by misbehaving outside the university gate (Laura 2007).
The government has also said university should scrap special deals with uniform suppliers and ensure clothing is widely available on the high street or at shops. Adolescents particularly appreciate uniforms because it prevented them from male classmates and teacher seeing their dress in suitable and removed a potential source of pestering. Uniform were also claimed to improve behavior in class themselves. Students reported being more attentive on their work because Uniform reduces distraction related with personal appearance. (Laura 2007).
Attillah (2016) in his comparative study found that impact of uniform on school climate was much higher than the school without uniform. Teachers believe that school is safe place and they can easily go to school for a work (Attillah 2016). Teachers were able to deter the bullying act and it reduces fights in institutes (Attillah 2016). The students learning environments get improved and thus their ability of high achievements was increases (Attillah 2016). Atiilah(2016) studies on impact of uniforms that it had a positive on school climate.
Most of the student agreed that uniform has positive impact on relationships of students and teachers. Atillah(2016) studies showed that student had confidence in teachers and the teachers esteem the students. Uniform create a positive attitude about institutes towards teachers and students.
Synott and Symes(1995) state that “the uniform governs and regulates both the outward and inward disposition of the pupil.” Urban public schools have in recent times executed school uniform polices to counter-balance ganged linked actions and rappers uniform (Dussel, 2005). The indication that how one uniform affects how one acts and implements is not a new concept. Schools in the 1950’s and 1960’s had movements to try and control young criminal behavior and mottos such as dress right were heard all over schools (Anderson, 2002).
In the 1980’s, many school administrators took another look at their uniform and careful executing uniform polices in a reaction to the growing amount of crew actions in their institute. The deterring codes were put in place for the resolution of protecting the students from crew activity and to produce a harmless school atmosphere (Bobbi, 2007).
The implementation of school uniforms also affects school climate (Bobbi, 2007). A positive school environment lessens failure and promotes adolescence progress, academic accomplishment, information, abilities and outlook are necessary for students to be liable and creative members of society (Cohen. et. Al 2009). The impact of school violence is complex (Bobbi, 2007). Researchers have showed that some pupils who are sufferers of school violence leave school sometimes, because they do not feel safe (Johnson, Burk and Gielen, 2011). Teachers left the school because of Fury in the community that impacted the environmentof the school (Algozzine and McGree, 2011).
Konheim-Kalkstein (2006) stated that information verifies school uniforms may actually improves a school’s atmosphere by decreasing competition, improving student self-confidence and improving academic accomplishment. School uniform exclude a source of disruption and variances among pupils, decreasing fights, bullying and criminality (Dress for Success, 2005).
King (1998) stated that school own believes that students and teachers tend to behave the way they are allowed to clothing. Lumsden and miller (2002) said that uniforms are useful because they reduce the social pressures. Huss (2007) stated that “The kids wearing uniforms are less cocky towards adults. The kids wearing uniform are generally better behaved and have fewer attitudes”.
The execution of school uniforms help to increase student self-worth and eventually to improve academic achievement (Brunsma, 2006). When students are less abstracted by uniform and behavior matters, they tend to emphasis more and do well in school. Students who go to school ready to learn are motivated to become prosperous leaders and add to progressive social change (Bobbi 2007).
Cambel (2006) reported that educationalists provide the faculty and students practical skills that increase awareness of uniform that psychosomatic security for protection of the entire school body. An actual uniform policy must take all investors’ concerns into account if university system supervisors wish to limit disputes, especially legal arguments. In an article for the university Law Bulletin, Russo (2006) provided policy for dress code that were planned to help university system lessen arguments over what students are not permitted to wear. Russo, (2006) defined six points to consider when evolving a uniform policy in order to set ‘an suitable balance between a duty to control student dress code and the rights of young people to express themselves’ (Russo, 2006). Russo (2006) also suggested points for policies to limit disputes over dress code matters, which involved getting input from parents at the establishment of the process, developing a brief policy, including a variety of penalty for criminals, including rewards for obedience, and keeping policies current by reviewing them once a year (Russo,2006 )
Russo (2006) involved the parents and getting their support as critical to the success of the program. Without parental support for the policy, a great agreement of time and money can be spent in the ensuring debate over the policy. Because of the demands of university is increasing looking for ways to improve attendance, academic achievement, and discipline recommendation rates. For such reasons, University uniform importance is a topic of interest in university system around the country. As discussed previously, follower of university uniform vender the uniform policy’s ability to develop the university and raise positive student’s consequences, while adversaries of uniforms claim that these benefits are fictional.
Major research findings begins with the landmark research of Brunsma and Rockquemore (1998), followed by an opposite point of view expressed by Bodine (2003). This debate is followed by a review of published literature regarding the possible efficiency of university uniforms in the important student’s consequences of attendance, academic accomplishment, and self-control referral rates. Thus section ends with a summary of what is known and what is unclear concerning the efficiency of university uniforms, leading to the policy engaged in the present study.
Bodine (2003) said that Brunsma and Rockquemore (1998) make a mistake by simplifying the data from the single university sector when they declared that uniforms had a negative effect on student achievement when their result statistically confirmed a positive correlation between test score and uniform use: Bodine (2003) accused Brunsma and Rockquemore (1998) of having ‘clouded thinking about university clothing by introducing an unfounded claim that student uniforms results in lower achievement ‘(Bodine, 2003). “In a reassessment of author of structure of argument, I discovered that the claim resulted from deceptive use of region analysis” (Bodine, 2003). Bodine (2003) also noted Brunsma and Rockquemore (1998) did not mention the positive correlation fount in the public sector of university in their study.
Bodine (2003) also noted Brunsma and Rockquemore (1998) focused too much on negative academic achievement within the Catholic university in the study without focusing at all on the positive academic achievement at the other university in the sample.
The Manual on School uniform (USDOJ, 1996) cited examples of school uniform polices from eight School systems in the United States to aid as perfect school uniform polices. “States and local school districts must decide how they will ensure a safe and discipline learning environment” (USDOJ, 1996. P.3). The Manual on School Uniforms listed examples of school districts which had approved school uniform polices as part of their plan to guarantee a safe and self-restraint environment, with the allegation that the uniform policy would aid move the school in the direction of a more safe and disciplined learning atmosphere. Results reflected a positive relationship between uniform and some aspects of school environment, criminality rates, student actions and attitude (Russell, E. 2012).